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初高中大学英与语法54

2019-4-15 11:07| 发布者: admin| 查看: 23| 评论: 0

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初高中大学英与语法54

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15.2 介词的意义

介词主要表达介词前后两个事物或人的空间、时间、归属、原因、工具等方面的关系。

15.2.1表示空间关系

15.2.1.1 表示位置、地点: at, on, in away from, off, out of

1at

A is at B”这样的结构中,名词A被看成仅仅表示名词B位置的点,表示“AB处”。 

at the airport at the bus-stop at the cinema at the corner at home

at school

They had been in the same class at school, and although he was very popular she 'd never paid any attention to him, nor he to her.

他们曾经是同班同学,虽然那时他很受欢迎,但他们彼此却从来没注意过对方。

表示A不在B处”,可用away from

She had to get away from London, away from Toby.

她必须得离开伦敦,离开托比。

2on

A is on B”这样的结构中,B可以表示一条线或一个面,AB支撑或与B接触。

on the desk on the grass on the hill on the road on ones shoulders on the table

Since Armstrong strode out on to the surface of the moon on July 20, 1969, only 12 men have stood on the surface of the moon.

自从1969620日阿姆斯特朗踏上月球的那刻起,到现在也只有12个人登上过月球。

表示A不在某个线或面上”,可用 off

As the kids raced outside screaming, Jim hunched down to hide but lost his balance and toppled off the roof.

孩子们在外面奔跑尖叫,吉姆猫腰想藏起来,但没想失去了平衡,从屋顶摔了下来。

3in

A is in B”这样的结构中,B是一个立体的空间,A处于B这个封闭的空间里。

in China in the field in the kitchen in prison in the room in a village in the world

I've never had a parent in prison, but I can imagine how hard it would be.

虽然我的父母亲没有坐过牢,但我可以想象那种经历该有多糟。

表示A不在B这个空间内”,可用out of

She was a heavy, sarcastic little girl and had been kicked out of class.

她是个严肃、爱讽刺人的女孩,还被赶出过教室。

15.2.1.2表示相对位置垂直或平行above, over, under, below, in front of, before, behind, after

above, over, under, below表示垂直方向的关系;而in front of, before, behind, after表示水平方向的关系。

1above, over

above, over作地点介词时表示“在..之上”的关系时,它们的区别在于, above仅表示在更高的位置,而over不同的是指正好垂直的关系,即正上方,但都没有产生接触。

The sunset opened like an orange flower above the desert.

落日的光辉就像开在沙漠上空的一朵柑橘花一样。

When I surfaced, gasping, the sky was intensely blue and I saw the moon, cratered and radiant, high over the tower on the distant Mount.

当我喘着气登上山顶,天是那么碧蓝,表面凹凸不平的月亮散发着光,高高挂在远处的山上。

over也可以表示接触,即“覆盖”。

To make the place more like a classroom, teachers spread scraps of blue carpet over the concrete floor and added a computer and a round table that seats eight to 12 students.

为了让这个地方更有教室的感觉,老师们在水泥板上铺上了蓝色的小地毯,添置了一台电脑和一张能坐812个学生的圆桌。

2below, under

below, under表示和above, over相反的意思;below表示在更低的位置,under指正好垂直的关系,正下方。

Her brother lives below us in the basement.

她哥哥住在我们下面的地下室里。

By looking at the colored chromosomes under a microscope, the doctor can easily tell whether the embryo is male or female.

通过在显微镜下观察染色体,医生很容易就能分辨胚胎的性别。

under也可以表示“被覆盖”。

She took the key from the front door, walked outside on to the drive and locked it behind her, placing the key under the mat.

她锁了门,拔出了钥匙放在毯子下,接着就走到了车子旁。

这四个介词用图表示即

 

3in front of, before, behind, after

in front ofbefore都表示“在...的前面”,它们的细微差别在于in front of还可以表示“在...的正面,面对..., before表示的地点常与先后顺序或重要性的大小有关。behindafter分别是它们的反义词。

He stood in front of his wife in dinner jacket and trousers, black tie dangling.

他穿着晚礼服,站在妻子面前,黑色的领带还摇晃着。

Four days before his wedding, he went up on the roof and he was shot dead by an Israeli helicopter.

就在他举行婚礼的四天前,他在屋顶被一架以色列的直升机上发射的子弹打死了。

He crouches down behind a chair.

他蜷缩在椅子后面。

The firm has provided me with educational and professional development opportunities that have made it possible to get promotion after promotion.

公司给我教育的机会和职业发展的机会,使我可以不断得到提拔的机会。

15.2.1.3表示在……之间between, among, amid, in the middle

1between

表示存在与某两个人、事物或地点之间,而这些物体或地点是相互分离的。between较少用于两者以上,如果出现情况则是将人、物或地点一对一对来看。

Why didn't you alert me that there was trouble between you and your boss?

为什么你没提醒我你和你老板之间存在着矛盾?

For nearly 600 years, apart from the disruptions of two world wars, the land that lies between the villages of Agincourt, Tramecourt and Maisoncelle has been the honoured resting place of thousands who fought there on October 25, 1415.(删去例句中冗长部分)

在近600年中,那片位于阿金库尔、特拉姆考特梅松西里的村庄间的土地是14151025日数千名在此发生的战争中牺牲者的荣耀的安息之地。

2among

表示在一组人或事物之中,常指三者或以上,这些人或物是作为一个整体的看待的。

The ancient Chinese were among the first people to develop farming, growing rice along the banks of the Yangtze River.

古代汉人是最先在长江两岸耕作和种植水稻的。

注意!

betweenamong的区别就在于between所指的是相互分离的人或物,among将人或物看成一个整体。

3amid

也写成amidst,多用于正式文体如文学作品中,表示在...中,与among类似,可指一组人或事物中。

On July 20, amid a heavy snowstorm, the team finally reached the summit of the mountain.

620日,队伍冒着暴风雪终于登顶。

4in the middle of

表示在两个地点之间近中心点的位置。

We took him to a remote coral island in the middle of the Indian Ocean, serving as a key strategic location for U.S. and British air strikes against Iraq.

我们把他带到印度洋中一个偏远的珊瑚岛,那里是美英联军空袭伊拉克的战略基地。

15.2.1.4表示在四周,围绕around, round, about

1aroundround

这两个词意思类似,美式英语中一般用around

1表示在一个范围内到处

The fall of a Hong Kong investment company has shaken financial markets around the world.

一家香港投资公司的失败震动了全世界的金融市场。

2) 表示围绕...运动

As a planet moves around a star, its gravity pulls on the star, causing it to wobble slightly.

当行星环绕恒星的时候,它自身的重力会使得恒星有轻微的震动。

3表示在某人或物的附近

District police have been training over the past week in how to spot terrorists masquerading as truckers and large trucks have been banned from an area around the U.S. Capitol.

过去的一周里,地区警察都在训练如何辨认化妆成卡车司机的恐怖分子,而在美国国会大厦附近区域,大型卡车已被禁止入内。

4) 表示环绕某个位置

The Daniel supported her with an arm around her waist.

丹尼尔用手臂扶住了她的腰。

用法提示

在以上234的用法中,英式英语也用round

There's a fence round the old womans garden at the back.

老妇人花园后有道篱笆围着。

2about

在以上1用法中,英式英语也用about,可以看出在美式英语用around的场合,英式英语常用aboutround 

He sat down for a few moments, and then getting up, walked about the room.

他坐了一会儿,又站了起来,在房里来回踱步。

15.2.1.5表示通过across, through, overpast, by

1acrossthrough, over

这三个词都表示从事物的一边穿越到另一边,区别在与across穿越的是一个平面;through穿越的是一个立体的空间;over穿越的是狭长的地方,如河流、沟渠、栅栏和马路等。

Flood waters have destroyed bridges and roads across the country.

洪水冲毁了村里的道路和桥梁。

He likes wandering aimlessly through the city

他喜欢在城市里毫无目的的四处游荡。

He jumped over the flowerpots in front of the hotel and kept on running to the end of the street.

他跳过了摆在酒店前的花盆,跑到了街的尽头。

2pastby

这两个词确切地表示经过某处或某人,两个词可以互换,但past更常用。

I spoke to him but he walked past me as though I wasn't there.

我对他说话,但是他从我身边走过就好像我不存在一样。

I walked by the library and decided to go in and ask for a job.

路过图书馆,我决定进去找找工作。

15.2.1.6表示运动方向to, for, towards, at, on, onto, in, into, away from, out of

1tofortowardsat

tofortowards都表示了运动的方向,但to强调了到达点;for强调了方向的目标点即目的地,for后面常加地名;towards指出了运动的方向,没有明确指出是否到达。

Blindly, Alan ran to his room, where he beat and punched his bed and cried aloud in a rage like a child.

艾伦摸索着冲进了自己的房间,朝着床又打又捶,像个孩子一样的痛哭着。

The night before Kate left for London, she decided to tell Judy she would never get back.

在凯特去伦敦的前一晚,她决定告诉朱蒂她再也不会回来了。

Suddenly 12 guys emerged from the SUVs and came towards me.

突然有12个人从越野车冒了出来,朝我走来。

at表示试图朝某个方向发出动作,未明确结果。

They were afraid of people shooting at our bus.

那些朝我们汽车射击的人使他们害怕极了。

2in, on, onto, into, off, out of,

in, on可以表示在某个位置的静止状态(参见15.2.1.1),也可以表示一种运动的状态。

She threw herself down on the sofa, and slept.

她倒在沙发上,睡着了。

If you must use the stove, first put the children in a safe place where you can see and hear them.

如果你一定要用炉子,首先要让孩子们呆在一个安全的地方,你看得见、听得见他们。

into, onto强调了运动的方向,动词后面使用into, onto来表达到达运动目标点的含义。

Nancy walked into his classroom on a warm summer evening.

一个炎热夏日的晚上,南希走进了他的教室。

Spotting the tsunami, he and his wife corralled the children onto a motorboat and outran the waves, seconds before their orphanage was crushed by a 30-foot wall of water.

确认了海啸的距离,他和妻子把孩子们赶上摩托艇,乘风破浪,几秒钟后他们的孤儿院就被30英尺高的巨浪给淹没了。

off, out of表示的是朝反方向,即离开。

A low pressure storm moves off the Atlantic seaboard.

一个低气压的暴雨离开了大西洋海岸。

He took out of a thick envelope a sheet of thick paper.

他拿出了一个厚信封和一张同样厚的纸。

 


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