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初高中大学英语语法53

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初高中大学英语语法53

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14.6.4连接副词

   连接副词一般都位于句子或从句的开头。如:

Overall, most drinks are less expensive than in the U.K. and U.S.

总之,大部分饮料比在英国或美国便宜。

Thus the factory manager is not necessarily crazy for sticking with older, energy-inefficient machines.

这样这个工厂的经理就没有必要固执的守住那些古老的、浪费能源的机器了。

For instance, he taught me how to use nitrous oxide for its effect in combating physical pain.

例如他教我如何使用二氧化碳的功效来对抗身体疼痛。

Similarly, another fat-soluble vitamin, namely vitamin D, differs, depending on its form.

同样的,另外的脂溶性维生素,即维生素D, 也因形式不同而不同。

14.6.5评注副词(Stance Adverb

修饰整个句子的评注副词通常位于句首的位置。例如:

Luckily, X-rays showed Jonny broke no bones.

幸运的是,X光透视显示乔尼没有摔断骨头。

Evidently, she believed she would find that inner peace in New Zealand.

很明显,她相信她可以在新西兰找到内心的平静。

Perhaps I've misunderstood my girlfriend.

或许我误解了我的女友。

有时也可以放在句中或句末位置。例如:

主语和主要动词之间:

He evidently wished to say something, but faltered.

他明显想说些什么,但是却支支吾吾。

They certainly respect their grandfather.

他们当然尊敬他们的祖父。

助动词或情态动词和主要动词之间:

Anna's letter had evidently taken some time to reach Brain.

显然安妮的信需要一段时间才能到布莱恩那里。

He should certainly be able to check whether or not the feather came from a swan.

他一定能够检查确定这些羽毛是否来自一只天鹅。

句末:

There's some reason for his resignation, surely.

他辞职了,这其中必有缘由。

There are problems, inevitably.

有问题不可避免。

Not everybody agreed, inevitably.

不是每个人都同意,这是不可避免的。

14.6.6程度副词

程度副词一般放在所修饰的词前。

We are so awfully tired.

我们非常累。

His office was in the west wing and fairly well equipped, with a bathroom and a small bedroom.

他的办公室在西侧,装修不错,有一个浴室和一个小的卧室。

Although Murphy is very busy, she is not always in the school's lab.

尽管墨菲非常忙,她也不是一直在学校实验室里。

有些表示程度重的副词也可以放在句末位置。例如:

His attitude towards the war changed completely.

他对战争的态度完全改变了。

You have to breathe deeply.

你必须深呼吸。

Your decision touched me deeply.

你的决定深深地打动了我。

程度副词enough 放在所修饰的形容词、副词之后。例如:

The park as a whole is large enough to absorb the great numbers of visitors.

这个公园总体来说足够大,可以容纳大量游客。

He couldn't get away fast enough.

他没能快速动身离开。

14.7 副词的比较级和最高级

14.7.1副词的比较级和最高级形式

副词比较级和最高级的使用远不及形容词频繁。比较级和最高级形式仅限于部分时间副词、方式副词和程度副词等。单音节及少数双音节副词的比较级和最高级形式加-er-est构成。大部分双音节及多音节副词加moremost构成。例如:

原级 比较级 最高级

hard harder hardest

early earlier earliest

 

often more often most often

slowly more slowly most slowly

carefully more carefully most carefully

还有少数不规则形式:

well better best

much more most

little     less least

far farther(further) farthest(furthest)

badly worse worst  

14.7.2副词的比较结构

和形容词一样,副词也可以用来表示比较。副词的比较结构主要有下面几种(关于形容词的比较结构参见第13章):

副词比较级+than+短语/从句

Foreign workers are more skilled in technology than ever.

外国工人比以往任何时候都在技术方面更加熟练。

If government spending grows more quickly than the national income as a whole, the government will be spending a larger share of our income and taxes will have to rise.

如果政府开支增长速度超过国民收入增长速度,政府将会花掉我们收入的更大一部分,因此税收将被迫增加。

as+副词+as短语/从句

The more we can use technology as quickly as possible, the better we can manage disease and lower costs.

我们越能快速地应用科技,越能更好地控制疾病并降低成本。

We're not doing as well as we could.

我们没有做到能力范围内的最好。

She couldn't dance as well as Mandy and Diana.

她跳舞没有明蒂和戴安娜那么好。

so+副词+that从句

The city is growing so fast that deer have no place to live and are constantly being killed by cars and hunters.

城市发展如此迅速,以至于鹿已经没有地方可以住,并且不断地被汽车撞死或者猎人杀死。

Last year his capablities had improved so much that he sang a solo in the school play.

去年他能力大有提高,在学校的表演上独唱了一首。

so+副词+as to 从句

She went so far as to say she is not a member of any political party.

她做的有点过,以至于说她不是任何政党的一员。

He went to the shop so repeatedly as to catch Miss Nancy's notice.

他频繁地光顾这个商店为的是得到南希小姐的注意。

too+副词+to从句

He spoke far too softly to be heard in the kitchen.

他说话太轻,在厨房里听不见。

Some critics say the American government has moved too slowly to respond.

有评论称美国政府行动太慢以至于没有反应。

副词+enough +to从句

They feared that the money might not be paid quickly enough to return it to shareholders before the end of this year.

他们担心钱付得不够快,从而不能在年底前把钱还给股东。

Jamison is playing well enough to be named to the all-star team for the first time in his career.

詹美逊表现非常出色,足以和明星队相提并论,这在他的职业生涯中是第一次。

14.7.3副词的比较级和最高级的特殊用法

有少数副词的比较级和最高级有一些习惯用法。

副词比较级+ and+副词比较级 越来越

They met more and more frequently as the months went by.

随着岁月流逝他们见面越来越频繁。

“I am just a little ship,” Aunt Emily said, “drifting farther and farther out to sea.

我只是一叶小舟,艾米丽阿姨说,“在大海上越漂越远。

the + 副词比较级……the + 副词比较级  越

The faster you lead your life and the more isolated you are because you're sitting at your computer all day, the more you would seek a community to counteract that isolation.

你生活节奏越快,你越会孤立,因为你整天都坐在电脑前面,你越感觉到需要一个社区来驱赶孤独。

The less alone we all feel, the better off we all are.

我们大家越是不感到孤独,越是会更好。

had better/best 最好

We had better tell him nothing.

我们最好什么也不告诉他。

You had best keep what I said in mind.

你最好把我说的记在脑子里。

know better than to 知道不应做

You should know better than to ask such a question after all I've tried to teach you.

你应该知道不应该问这样的问题,毕竟我在试图教你。

You should know better than to walk out into strange streets alone.

你应该知道不要独自一个人去陌生的街道。

think better of  改变主意

Rose was about to protest, but thought better of it.

罗斯刚要抗议,不过他又改变了主意。

He also ordered French fries, but thought better of it when the restaurant suggested onion rings instead.

他也点了炸薯条,但是当饭店推荐洋葱圈的时候他改变了主意。

14.8 小结

本章详细介绍了副词的特点和用法。有些副词和形容词关系密切,由形容词加-ly派生而来,有些简单副词和形容词同形。这两类副词的意义相近,用法上也有一些细微的区别需要注意。副词按照其语义可以分为方式副词、程度副词、时间副词、地点副词、连接副词、评注副词等。不同类别的副词不但在做修饰语、状语和补语等不同句法功能方面都不相同,而且其在句子中的位置也各不相同。副词在句中的位置不但取决于副词本身的类别,也取决于具体的语境,即说话者想强调什么内容。规则副词的比较级和最高级也是加-er, estmore, most

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

第十五章 介词和介词短语

15.1 介词的种类

介词一般放于名词、动名词和代词前,表示介词前后两个事物或人的地点、方向、时间、归属、原因、工具等关系。介词主要可以分为简单介词(Simple Prepositions)、复杂介词(Complex Prepositions)、和具有介词功能的动词分词组成边缘介词(Marginal Prepositions)。

15.1.1简单介词

大多数介词为简单介词(Simple Prepositions),即由一个单词组成的单一介词,主要有:

about above across after against along amidst around as at before behind below beside besides between but by despite down during except for from in inside into like near

of off on onto over out past

per pro qua since than through till

to toward under up upon with within without

15.1.2 复杂介词

复杂介词可以由两个或三个单词组成。

1、 两个词组成,一般前面词为副词、形容词或连词,后一个为单一介词

ahead of along with apart from as for as from as regards as to away from because of but for contrary to due to except for inside of instead of next to out of owing to prior to together with up to

2、 三个词组成,一般前后两个词为简单介词,中间一个多为名词或者是形容词。

as far as by means of by virtue of for(the) sake of in accordance with

in case of in favor of in front of in need of in place of

in process of in/with regard to in/with respect to in respect of in spite of

in view of on account of on behalf of on grounds of on top of with reference to

15.1.3边缘介词

一些类似其他词类的词(例如动词)充当介词被称为边缘介词,最常见的是一些分词充当介词,例如considering, excepting, given, including, regarding

 


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