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初高中大学英语语法52

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初高中大学英语语法52

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14.5.2 副词作状语

副词作状语是副词单独充当独立的句法成分。副词作状语主要有三种:状态性状语(circumstance adverbials)、评注性状语(stance adverbialsdisjuncts)、连接性状语(linking adverbsconjuncts)。(参见:关于状语更详细地参见第17章。)

1、状态性状语

状态性状语的主要功能是为句子所述的动作提供更加详细的描述信息,例如动作进行的时间、方式和地点等。

Then he strode out of the shop.

然后他大踏步走出商店。

She went to London and is doing very well now.

她去了伦敦,现在做得非常好。

To her horror he slowly turned the canoe out into the lake instead of in to shore.

让她感到恐怖的是他慢慢地把小舟划向湖里,而不是岸边。

2、评注性状语

评注性状语表示说话者对句子所述命题内容的评注。包括对命题内容的确定性、态度等。例maybe, probably, undoubtedly, unfortunately, amazingly, surprisingly, honestly, frankly等。

He was undoubtedly the star of the show, and had a wonderful chemistry with the rest of the cast that brought their onstage friendship to life beautifully.

无疑他是这个演出的明星。并且他和其它演员合作极好,他们的友谊也从台上延伸到台下。

Amazingly, the storms that have often brought rains to quench the region's patched farmlands have wreaked little destruction.

通常情况下狂风和紧接的暴雨会对该地区的成片农田造成毁灭性破坏,令人惊讶的是这次却几乎没有造成破坏。

I am anxious, frankly, that we are not bringing digital technology into the classroom as fast as I believe we should.

坦白说我担心我们没有像应该做的那样尽快把数字技术带进课堂。

3、连接性状语

连接性状语主要是起连接上下文的作用,其中上下文包括词组、句子、段落甚至篇章。

Capitalism is, therefore, inherently unstable, being subject to crises of booms and slumps.

因此,资本主义从本质上来说就是不稳定的,有繁荣也有萧条。

14.5.3 副词做主语补足语或宾语补足语

与方向有关的地点副词可以用在系动词后面,做主语补足语如in, down, out, off, behind, round, around, through, along, on, over, back, away, here, downstairs, abroad等。例如:

“All they know is that Daddy is away on a trip,” she said.

“他们所知道的是父亲去旅行了,”她说。

I'm delighted he will be around to help Jeff and mentor him.

我很高兴他过来帮杰夫并指导他。

He's not here at the moment, but he'll be back by half-past three.

他现在不在这里,不过他三点半以后会回来。

上面某些副词还可以做宾语补足语。例如:

“Let me in,” Laura demanded.

“让我进来”劳拉要求道。

His Mum saw Jack out.

他妈妈看见杰克出去了。

 “Their support was fantastic and that helped me through,” he said.

“他们的支持非常棒,帮助我渡过了难关,”他说。

14.5.4 副词作介词宾语

有些表示地点、时间的副词可以用作介词宾语。如:

I speeded up the walking a little to get away from there.

我加快了脚步离开这儿。

If he missed this fast train, there was no other until tomorrow.

如果他错过了快车,明天之前没有其它车了。

Mr. and Mrs. McAllister were last seen in town the day before yesterday in a cab on 5th Avenue.

麦克阿里斯特夫妇最后一次在镇上出现是前天在第五大道的一辆出租车里。

14.5.5副词独立使用

在口语中副词可以单独使用。有时把前面句子中的副词状语剥离出来,单独放在下一句中使用,用来强调句子所表述的内容。例如

A: I found them uninterested in her novel.

我发觉他们对她的小说不感兴趣。

B: Yeah. Totally and utterly.

是的,完全如此。

 

A: Things are changing, arent they? 

事情在变化,不是吗?

B: Yeah. Slowly but surely.

是的,尽管很缓慢但是确实在变。

 

有时,副词单独使用在对话的回应句中,表示回答、赞同或者疑问。常用的副词有exactly, surely, definitely, really, seriously, honestly, probably等。例如:

A: Are you just gonna drink a lot tonight?

你今晚要喝很多吗?

B: Yeah. Definitely.

是的,绝对是。

A: Really?

真的?

B: Yeah. I'm not even joking.

是的,我没有开玩笑。

 

A: People can be quite capable or they can be surprisingly bad.  

人们既可以十分地聪明能干,也可以出奇地糟糕。

B: Exactly.

确实如此。

 

A: I think they're the fastest growing religious group in the world too.  

我认为他们也是世界上人数增长最快的宗教团体。

B: Really?

真的?

A: That's what my professor said.

那是我的教授说的。

 

A: You're just using us as excuses.

你只是用我们做借口。

B: But I'm sure whatever you have will be fine. Honestly.

但是我确信你们有的一切都会好起来的,真的。

14.6 副词的位置

  副词充当介词宾语和补足语时位置都是固定的。本节主要讲副词作词组修饰成分和作状语时的位置。总体来说副词的位置非常灵活,可以在句首、句中或句末位置。具体到某一类副词来说,有的副词在三种位置都能出现,有的副词只能出现在其中某两个位置,有的副词只能出现在其中某一个位置。其中副词在句中的位置又可以区分为位于主语后、情态动词或助动词后以动词后等不同情况。下面详细介绍每类副词的位置。

14.6.1 时间副词的位置

表示时间或区间的副词,一般放在句末位置。例如:

Somebody wanted to know what we're doing tomorrow.

有人想知道我们明天做什么。

A young man set fire to dozens of luxury homes in Charles County last week.

上周一个年轻人对查尔斯县的数十座豪华住房纵火。

有时为了强调和对照也可将时间副词放在句首。例如:

Tomorrow, we're going to talk about how to make America's teaching force more diverse to match its student body.

明天我们将讨论如何让美国的教学队伍更多样化来满足学生群体的要求。

Last week, Richard Seed, a Chicago medical researcher, said he had the means to start cloning human beings and could soon open a clinic to do so.

上周理查德·希得,一个芝加哥医学研究者,说他有克隆人类的办法并且很快就开一个诊所来实施这件事

表示时间序列和频率的副词如sometimes, often, soon, finally, presently, once, now等,位置更为灵活,可以置于句首、句中(主语后、动词前或助动词、情态动词及动词be)、或句末。如果句中有情态动词、助动词,频率副词就放在这类动词后面,主要动词前面。如:

I can always phone my sister to ask for advice.

我永远可以打电话给我姐姐寻求建议。

He was a little too fond of drink and would occasionally get into fights.

他有点太爱喝酒了,有时也会和别人打架。

Teenagers will soon play government-designed computer games featuring mythical heroes from Russian folklore battling evil serpents.

青少年很快就会玩政府设计的电脑游戏,这些游戏是按英雄和恶魔战斗的俄罗斯民间故事设计的。

如果句中没有情态动词、助动词,且句子的主要动词是实义动词,则频率副词通常在实义动词前面、主语后面。如:

It is said that divorce often takes place on the initiative of the wife.

据说离婚通常是由妻子主动提出。

My dog usually gets two scoops of dried dog food and one or two biscuits a day.

我的狗通常每天吃两勺干的狗食另加一两块饼干。

“Mother Nature sometimes makes rocks that look like humans made them,” he said.

“大自然母亲有时会制作一些看起来像是人造的石头,”他说。

They finally took the girl to the local Iraqi police station.

他们最终把这个女孩带到了伊拉克当地警察局。

如果句中有系动词,频率副词位于系动词之后。如:

He had taken a teaching job in Florida and was seldom home.

他在佛罗里达找到一份教书的工作,很少在家。

The loans were frequently for six months or less and typically paid interest equal to 20 percent a year.

贷款通常情况下为期六个月甚至更少,并且所付的利息相当于一年付百分之二十。

有时为了表示强调,频率副词也会偏离上述位置。例如:

在句首位置:

Always she chose the most deserted routes in her journey.

她总是选择最荒芜的路线去旅行。

Sometimes your real limits are different than you think.

有时你真正的底线和你认为的并不一样。

Finally, he brought his family to live with him.

最后,他将家人搬来和他一起住。

在情态动词或助动词前:

He never has used performance-enhancing drugs and never has had a positive drug test.

他从来没有使用兴奋剂,在药检中也从来没有显示阳性。

Drugs called antidepressants sometimes can treat depression in children and teens.

抗抑郁症药物也能治疗孩子和青少年的抑郁。

在句末位置:

Talk to your child's teacher early and often.

早点和你孩子的老师交流,并且经常交流。

I actually encourage my wife to spend money sometimes.

实际上有时我还鼓励我妻子花钱。

Rock music is back, finally.

摇滚乐终于又回来了。

14.6.2地点副词的位置

表示地点的副词一般在动词后位置。例如:

Sara went upstairs to the front bedroom, dumped her knapsack on the floor, took off her socks and shorts and sat on one of the beds.

萨拉上楼去到前面的卧室里,把她的背包里的东西一股脑儿倒在地板上,脱下袜子和短裤坐到其中一张床上。

She stayed here for several days.

她在这里呆了几天。

He pushed the letter under the door and went away.

他把信塞到门底下然后离开了。

但是有时为了上下文连贯或保持句子平衡,地点副词也可出现在句首位置。这时一般会引起主谓倒装语序(详细参考25.2.1)

注意!有些与介词同形的副词,既可以放在宾语之前,也可放在宾语之后,如put on the coatput the coat on。但如果宾语是人称代词,只能放置在宾语后面,如put it on。其它类似的副词还有out, up, down, in, away等。

14.6.3方式副词

表示动作方式的副词多放在动词词组后面,如果是不及物动词,直接在其后面。如果是及物动词,则方式副词一般在宾语的后面。如:

Just three weeks ago it rained heavily for the first time in four years.

就在三周前下了四年内的第一场大雨。

It is found that sugars that occur naturally in breast milk reduce the number of harmful bugs in a baby's stomach.

人们发现母乳中自然产生的糖分能够减少婴儿胃中的有害细菌。

Both Kitty and Jefferson greeted him warmly and told him how pleased they were that he had come.

凯蒂和杰弗逊都热情地接待了他,并告诉他他们是多么为他的到来感到高兴。

If you do it intentionally, you can end up in jail.

如果你是有意去做的,你最终会进监狱。

有时为了表示对动作的强调,方式副词可以放在主语后面,动词前面。如:

He intentionally worsened the relationship between the two sides of the negotiation.

他故意让谈判双方的关系恶化。

The website is informative and forthright, and I warmly recommend it.

这个网站不但信息性强而且直言不讳,因此我热情推荐。

She let the tears well into her huge eyes, but she bravely wiped them away.

泪水涌进了她大大的眼睛,不过她勇敢地拭干了泪珠。

如果宾语部分较长,方式副词还可以放在动词和宾语之间。如:

She should think carefully about all her options before she makes a decision.

她在做出决定以前应该仔细地考虑所有选择。

We examine carefully any measures which might enhance the nation's security.

我们仔细地研究了所有可能加强国家安全的措施。


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