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初高中大学英语语法

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14.4 副词的语义分类

14.4.1方式副词

方式副词表达句子所述动作进行的方式。常用的方式副词包括happily, automatically, quickly, fast, abreast, well, quietly等。

Pagan and I are happily married, with babies as well as jobs.

蒲甘和我幸福地结婚了,有孩子,也有工作。

He had acted quickly to help her.

他迅速行动去帮她。

The nonprofit group has been quietly experimenting with the crop for two years.

这个非盈利性组织已经悄悄地拿这种农作物实验两年了。

14.4.2程度副词

程度副词描述某种性状的程度。常用的程度副词可以分成两类:表示程度重的副词和表示程度轻的副词。表示程度重的副词中使用频率最高的是very, so, too, 例如:

Elspeth seems a very lovely lady but she has lived in my neighbourhood for nine months.

艾丝佩丝看上去是一位非常可爱的女士,只是她在这附近刚住了九个月。

He was so wise and astute in official affairs.

他在处理官方事务中非常精明狡猾。

“We have to try everything before it's too late,” he said.

“我们必须趁来得及尝试各种事情,”他说。

其它表示程度重的副词有 more, really, extremely, almost, thoroughly, completely, totally, awfully, perfectly, bloody, fully, absolutely, damn, entirely, incredibly, terribly, highly, strongly等。

I know many extremely intelligent people who are not successful.

我认识很多非常聪明但是却不成功的人。

Actors I work with either have to be totally crazy or totally confident.

和我一起工作的演员不是完全疯狂就是完全自信。

When Lily was 8 months old, she was pronounced totally deaf.

当莉莉八个月大的时候,她就被宣告完全失聪。

The company designs highly complex custom software for biotech businesses.

该公司为生物科技行业设计非常复杂的客户软件。

If I hadn't been so bloody selfish and gone to a stupid party instead of working with her then none of this would have happened.

如果我当时极度自私,参加了一个愚蠢的政党,而不是和她一起工作,那么现在的一起都不会发生了。

He’s done awfully well at the university and now he’s got a job, an important job as well.

他在大学里表现非常出色,现在他有了工作,还是非常重要的工作。

This method is dead simple to set up and ensures that you always have an up-to-date version of your data.

这个函数的设定非常简单,并且能保证你一直拥有最新的数据。

上面两个例子中的awfullydead既可以用作方式副词也可以用作程度副词,当作程度副词的时候,便丧失了本来的字面意义,只是表示单纯的程度加深。

表示程度轻的副词最常用的有quitepretty, 其中quite更多地在英国英语中出现,pretty更多地在美国英语中出现。

其它表示程度轻的副词有:nearly, relatively, fairly, almost, slightly, somewhat, rather等。

Her mother 's voice was slightly puzzled.

他母亲的声音有些困惑。

The situation is somewhat different in Japan.

在日本情况略有不同。

He is somewhat embarrassed and proud at the same time.

他在有点尴尬的同时也感到自豪。

   还有些程度副词只是从意义上强调,如especially, even, just, exactly, just, only, simply等。

Even a policeman wouldn't dare poke about without a search warrant- and you 're not a policeman.

即使一个警察没有搜查证也不敢乱翻,何况你还不是一个警察。

Just at that time the manager was the only man supposed to have any right to fire him.

就在那时候,经理是唯一一个有权解雇他的人。

14.4.3时间副词

时间副词表达和时间有关的意义。有的表达确定的时间,如yesterday, today, tomorrow, last week, a month ago等;有的表达不确定时间,如recentlynowadays, still, immediately, just等;有的表达一种时间关系或序列,如already, now, then, before, ago, first, next, later, soon, still, yet, since, just等;有的表达时间频率如 always, often, sometimes, never, constantly, frequently hardly, ever, rarely, seldom, scarcely ever, usually等。

I have six goldfish now.

我现在有六条金鱼。

She always brought me wonderful chocolates when she came to visit Grandma when I was living there.

当我住在外婆那里的时候,每次她去看外婆都给我带非常棒的巧克力。

Family members point out that they have already given hundreds of millions of dollars.

家人指出他们已经给过数亿美元了。

14.4.4地点副词

地点副词表示和地点、方向有关的含义。例如here, away, outside, left, right, straight, west, in, down, above, below, up, downstairs, anywhere, everywhere等。

When my mother passed away, she didn't want a funeral or anything.

当我母亲过世的时候,她不想要任何葬礼。

He took his hand away from hers and lit a cigarette with trembling fingers.

他把手从她的手中抽出,用颤抖的手指点上了一支雪茄。

As he stepped down from the ladder to gulp his breakfast, he asked me to help him.

他从梯子上下来,准备狼吞虎咽地吃早饭,这时他让我帮他。

有些地点方向副词是古英语中的形式,还偶尔在正式文体或文学类作品中出现,例如hither(here), thither(there), yonder(over there), hence(from here), thence(from there), whither(where)等。

The mystic token alighted on the hither verge of the stream.

那个神秘的信号在小溪的那边闪烁。

He lies yonder, under a little heap of poor grass.

他躺在那边,在一小堆破草的下面。

14.4.5连接副词

连接副词主要用来连接句子或者分句,表述句子之间的语义联系,使整个篇章更连贯和流畅(连接状语详细参见16章状语)。连接副词主要有下面几种:

表示顺序和附加的连接副词,如first, secondly, thirdly, additionally, moreover, besides等。

There are three problems. First, not all personal digital assistants are created equal.

一共有三个问题:首先,不是所有的个人数码助手都具有同等的重要性。

表示总结的连接副词,如altogether, overall, in sum, to conclude等。

Overall, 14 percent of teachers did not have their credentials.

总得来说,有百分之十四的教师没有证件。

表示解说的连接副词,如namely, for example, that is, for instance, in other words等。

They all agreed on the absolute essentiality of solidarity among the three countries -- namely, Japan, South Korea, and the United States.

对于日本,韩国和美国三个国家之间要保持团结的绝对重要性他们取得了一致意见。

表示因果的连接副词,如therefore, thus, consequently, so, accordingly, hence

I write this journal for myself and, consequently, anything that I may toss into it will become, for me, a precious memory.

我的日记为自己而写,因此我写进去的任何事情都将会成为我宝贵的记忆。

表示对比的连接副词,如though, however, but, nevertheless等。

If he passes the exam, he thinks his chances of finding a job will improve, though competition among laid-off blue-collar workers will be brutal.

他觉得如果他能通过考试,他找到工作的机会就会增加。尽管下岗蓝领工人之间的竞争会很残酷。

14.4.6评注副词(stance adverbs

评注副词具体一般表示说话者对命题内容的确定性、真实性或者来源等的判断,例如:probably, definitely, actually, really, apparently, reportedly, honestly, surely, frankly, clearly, certainly, evidently, possibly, briefly, luckily, fortunately, surprisingly, naturally, typically, inevitably, likely等。

Apparently he is lunching with an old business friend at the clubhouse, and then will fly immediately to Paris in his private jet.

很明显,他在俱乐部和一个老的生意伙伴吃午饭,然后他将乘坐私人飞机直接返回巴黎。

I think he is probably getting worried about your brother.

我想他可能在担心你的弟弟。

Actually, the Red Cross report suggests that somewhere between 70 and 90 per cent of those who have been incarcerated since the beginning of the Iraq war are guilty of no crimes, terrorist or otherwise.

实际上,红十字会报告认为,从伊拉克战争开始起被监禁的那些人中有百分之七十到九十都没有犯任何罪行,没有搞任何恐怖活动。

One 14-year-old boy was reportedly hit by a stray bullet and taken to the hospital.

据报道,有一名十四岁的男孩被流弹打中,并被送进了医院。

或表示模糊的概念,如kind of, sort of, roughly, like, approximately, about, nearly, maybe等。

I think it would be kind of nice to actually experience a holiday abroad.

我认为亲身体验一次国外度假应该会不错。

We have roughly the same employment as we had in May on a seasonally adjusted basis.

经过一次季节性调整,我们现在的雇员数量基本上和五月份差不多。

The tobacco company donates approximately $240,000 each year in student and college scholarships.

烟草公司每年大约捐献24万美元给学生或用作大学奖学金。

14.5 副词的句法功能

副词的句法功能分为两大类,一是作词组修饰成分,修饰动词,形容词,副词和名词等。这时副词不单独充当句法成分,而是和它修饰的词组一起作句法成分。二是副词独立作句法成分,可以作状语、补足语和介词宾语等。

14.5.1副词作词组修饰成分

1、副词修饰动词

方式副词、时间副词、地点副词、程度副词都直接用来修饰动词。例如:

Emma herself did not much like green tea, but she pretended enthusiasm and sipped politely.

艾玛自己并不太喜欢绿茶,不过她假装非常感兴趣,礼貌地着茶。

She is pretty turbo-charged herself, cheerfully working a 10 to 12 hour day.

她像是给自己安装了一个发动机,每天快乐地工作十到十二小时。

Alix went upstairs to her old bedroom to take off her white dress and to put on her pale-blue linen dress.

艾丽克斯上楼到她原来的卧室,脱下白色的礼服,换上了那条浅蓝色亚麻礼服。

Mr. Brown has already recommended reforms, but some could take years to bring into effect.

布朗先生已经提出了改革建议,但是有些可能需要数年才能见效。

In 1995, the train in this country was completely modernized.

1995年这个国家的火车已经完全现代化了。

2、副词修饰形容词

程度副词常用来修饰形容词。例如:

“I'm a fiercely independent kind of guy and rather proud of it,” Franks told the reporter.

弗兰克告诉记者“我是一个绝对独立的人,并且以此为荣”。

Decades of this politicians humbuggery had created a deeply skeptical public.

这个政客数十年来一直欺骗大家,公众对他已经产生深深的怀疑。

有些程度副词可以用来修饰形容词的比较级。

The death rate was slightly higher - 38 per 100,000 - for women who had taken estrogen for at least 10 years but had stopped by the time they enrolled in the study.

这些女人一直服用雌激素,最短的也有十年,直到她们参加这项研究时才停止服用。对这些人来说,十万分之三十八的死亡率有点高。

The economic outlook is now much stronger than previously thought.

现在的经济前景比之前想得要好很多。

在口语中有一些常用的“副词+形容词组合”,例如pretty good, really good, very good, quite good, very nice, too bad等。例如:

Pets can take care of themselves, especially cats are pretty good about being independent.

宠物可以自己照顾自己,特别是猫在自理方面还不错。

I think everyone out here was very nice to me.

我认为这里的每个人对我都非常好。

上面这些例子中,副词都在所修饰的形容词前面。有些副词修饰形容词的时候必须位于形容词后面,例如enoughago等。

I 'm old enough to look after myself.

我已经足够大,可以自己照顾自己。

Their father is a drunk whose wife left him long ago; their foul-mouthed grandmother lives with them.

他们的父亲是一个酒鬼,妻子早就弃他而去,满嘴脏话的奶奶和他们住在一起。

3、副词修饰其它副词

I had to write down his phone number really fast.

我必须快速地写下他的电话号码。

Business life consists almost entirely of projects, one after the other.

商业生活几乎全部是由项目组成,一个接着一个。

也有很多常用的“副词+副词”组合,例如right now, pretty much, right here, so much, very much, much more, much better, pretty soon, pretty well, very well, too much, much less, so fast, so well, just now, really well, very often等。

His daughter is just a little more mature than other kids right now.

他的女儿现在只比其它孩子成熟一点点。

After the heart operation, she is doing much better.

经过心脏手术以后,她现在好多了。

有些程度副词可以修饰副词的比较级。

He told Rufus to drive a bit more slowly.

他告诉鲁弗斯开车再小心一点。

The young mother is working a lot harder to just meet basic living expenses.

这位年轻的妈妈为了对付基本生活开支,工作更加辛苦了。

4、副词修饰其它成分

副词还可以修饰名词短语、介词短语、数量短语等。能修饰名词短语的副词主要有rather, quiteeven等少数几个副词,用来增强语气。例如:

There's going to be quite a show tomorrow.

明天将有一场不错的演出。

His mother was rather a stranger to him, so he didn't feel the loss of her so keenly.

他的母亲对他来讲是个陌生人,所以对于她的去世,他没有感觉到多少悲痛。

有些时间地点副词也可以修饰名词,但是位置在名词之后,如here, there, before, yesterday等。

Summer is too hot and winter is too cold, but life here is easy and peaceful, and people are friendly even.

夏天太热而冬天太冷,不过这里的生活安逸而平静,并且这里的人特别友好。

She had given up her job the week before.

她前一个星期已经辞职了。

能修饰介词短语的副词主要有well, right, just, directly等少数几个副词。例如:

Most of them are well over the age of 50.

他们中的大多数超过50岁。

Father took three steps towards me and smacked me on the ear right in front of a roomful of people.

父亲朝我走了三步,然后当着一屋子人的面扇了我一个耳光。

能修饰数量短语的副词有quite, about, virtually, roughly, more than, approximately等。例如:

Social workers estimate that about 6,000 men, women and children scratch out a living on San Diego streets, a population that tends to climb in winter.

社会工作者估计在圣地亚哥有大约6000男人、女人和孩子在大街上流浪为生。冬天这个数字还会增加。

Virtually every hotel in Sweden halves its prices in summer, bringing even the most palatial hotels within reach of most travellers.

瑞典的夏季几乎每家旅馆都降为半价,连最富丽堂皇的旅馆也能让大部分旅客享受了。

Last year, police in this state investigated roughly 3,000 cases, including aggravated assaults, shootings, rapes and 94 murders.

去年该州的警察调查了约3000起案件,包括恶性袭击,枪击,强奸和94起谋杀案件。

 


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