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初高中大学英语语法50

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初高中大学英语语法50

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13.6形容词的构成

根据构词法的不同,形容词可以分为以下几类:分词形容词、派生形容词和复合形容词。

13.6.1 分词形容词

1、由-ing分词转化来的形容词

   -ing分词转化来的形容词常常有主动意义,常见的有absorbing, approving, amazing, boring, boiling, balding, convincing, charming, chilling, disgusting, disappointing, endearing, engaging, encouraging, exciting, following, fascinating, frustrating, fatiguing, governing, gushing, humiliating, humbling, irritating, inviting, increasing, interesting, killing, lasting, laboring, moving, maddening, neighboring, owing, perishing, persevering, shocking, sparkling, tempting, wearing等。

2、由-ed分词转化来的形容词

-分词转化来的形容词通常有被动意义,常见的有advanced, astonished, appointed, blessed, considered, constrained, discovered, destroyed, determined, elected, elevated, educated, exhausted, frightened, frustrated, governed, heated, irritated, involved, jammed, oriented, rejected, terrified, startled, unabashed, unattained, unbalanced, undressed等。

13.6.2派生形容词

1、以-al结尾的形容词

这类派生形容词最普通,例如central, final, general, international, local, national, normal, political, real, royal, social, special, industrial, legal, medical, mental, natural, official, original, personal, physical, professional, sexual, total, usual, additional, commercial, critical, ideal, moral, oral, practical, typical, vital等。

2、以-ent结尾的形容词

例如ancient, apparent, confident, current, decent, dependent, excellent, independent, recent, silent, sufficient, absent, adjacent, consistent, efficient, frequent, innocent, intelligent, prominent, subsequent等。

3、以-ive结尾的形容词

    例如active, attractive, effective, expensive, negative, positive, relative, aggressive, cognitive, comprehensive, creative, distinctive, excessive, exclusive, extensive, impressive等。

4、以-ous结尾的形容词

    例如serious, various, anxious, conscious, continuous, curious, dangerous, enormous, famous, nervous, obvious, previous, religious等。

5、以-ate结尾的形容词

    例如appropriate, private, separate, accurate, adequate, immediate, intimate, moderate等。

6、以-ful结尾的形容词

    例如beautiful, useful, successful, careful, awful, wonderful, cheerful, grateful, helpful, painful, peaceful, powerful等。

7、以-less结尾的形容词

    例如endless, helpless, homeless, useless等。

13.6.3 复合形容词

复合形容词的构成可以是多种多样的, 可以表达各种复杂的信息。复合形容的形式多种多样,有很多组合。例如:

副词+形容词(Adverb + adjective

already-tight, blisteringly-fast, fiercely-competitive, grimly-familiar, highly-sensitive, politically-independent, nearly-equal

副词+-ed分词(Adverb + ed-participle

carefully-honed, extensively-researched, fiercely-contested, ill-suited, lavishly-produced, newly-restored, psychologically-disturbed, recently-installed, strongly-worded, comparably- sized, badly-wounded, half-built, highly-praised, newly-invented, well-organized

副词+-ing分词(Adverb + ing-participle

brightly-shining, constantly-changing, equally-damaging, free-spending, harder-hitting, slowly-sinking, early-maturing, straight-speaking, tightly-fitting

复制形容词(Reduplicative

lovey-dovey, okey-dokey, curly-whirly, easy-peasy, wishy-washy, roly-poly, super-duper,  oldy-worldy, goody-goody

形容词+颜色形容词(Adjective + color adjective

silvery-green, royal-blue, dark-blue, light-blue, gray-white

形容词+其他形容词(Adjective + other adjective

sectoral-zonal, infinite-dimensional

形容词+-ed分词(Adjective + ed-participle

clean-shaven, ready-made, soft-textured, strait-laced, white-washed

形容词+-ing分词(Adjective + ing-participle

biggest-selling, double-crossing, free-standing, funny-looking, sickly-smelling, longest-serving, lovely-sounding

名词+形容词(Noun + adjective

age-old, battle-weary, grease-free, iron-rich, life-long, sea-blue, sex-specific, subsidy-free, smoke-free, waist-high

名词+-ed分词 (Noun + ed-participle)

church-owned, classroom-based, dome-shaped, family-oriented, germ-ridden, health-related, home-baked , poverty-stricken, state-run, world-renowned

名词+-ing分词 (Noun + ing-participle)

hair-raising, law-abiding, nerve-wracking, eye-catching, life-prolonging, peace-keeping confidence-boosting,

形容词+名词 (Adjective + noun)

big-name, cutting-edge, double-digit, free-market, general-purpose, hard-core, inner-city, large-scale, left-hand, long-distance, present-day, single-storey, working-class

分词+副词小品词 (Participle + adverbial particle)

blown-out, boarded-up, left-over, paid-up, sawn-off

 13.7 小结

该章详细介绍了形容词的特点和用法。形容词的典型特征是具有描述性,有比较级、最高级的形态变化,可以做修饰语和补语。具有这些典型特征的形容词是中心形容词,只具有部分典型特征的形容词属于外围形容词,比如分类性形容词、只能做补语的形容词等。形容词做名词修饰语的时候可以在名词前面也可以在名词后面。形容词既可以做主语补语也可以做宾语补语。除了做修饰语和补语这两个主要句法功能以外,形容词还有其它一些功能,比如起句子衔接作用,做独立分句等。规则形容词的比较级和最高级是其后加-er, -est或其前加more, most

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

第十四章 副词

14.1 副词概说

副词属于第四大类开放性词汇,是所有词类里面种类最繁多的一类,用法也十分复杂。副词和形容词有着密切的关系。很多副词就是由形容词加词缀-ly变来的,例如:nicely, beautifully, fondly, slowly等副词都是由相应的形容词变来。

和形容词一样,大多副词也有程度的差别,所以可以受另外的程度副词修饰,可以有比较级和最高级。例如:

All my children could draw and paint really beautifully.

我的所有孩子都会做非常漂亮的绘画。

Domesticated dogs read peoples' glances and gestures far more skillfully than chimpanzees, wolves, or wild dogs do.

家养狗远比大猩猩、狼和野狗更娴熟地读懂人们的眼神和手势。

副词和形容词都可以做修饰成分,不同的是形容词用来修饰名词短语,而副词主要是用来修饰动词词组、形容词词组和其他副词,例如:

Shane's a careful and calculating driver, very neat and precise in his driving technique.

沙恩是一个细心精明的司机,他的驾驶技巧非常精准。

We went carefully along the beach, but there were no boats and no wild men.

我们非常细心地沿着海滩走,但是没有发现任何船只,也没有任何野人。

上面的形容词careful修饰名词短语,相应的副词carefully修饰动词短语。

有的副词还可以修饰整个句子,例如:

A hearing on this issue will be held shortly.

很快就会召开关于这件事情的意见听取会。

Surprisingly, few Americans I met seemed to think of Pakistan as an ally

不可思议的是,我认识的美国人中没有几个当巴基斯坦是盟军。

14.2 副词的形式

尽管有一部分副词是通过形容词加后缀-ly形成的,但是并不是所有的副词都是这种形式。副词的构成主要有下面几种形式:

1、简单副词

简单副词是由单个词根构成的副词,例如well, too, rather, quite, soon, here等。有些简单副词是兼类词,同时兼有副词和其它词性。例如副词fast, long同时也是形容词;副词downround同时也是介词。一些口语中常用的副词都是简单副词,例again, always, already, far, here, there, never, soon, now, still, yet, then, very, rather, quite, pretty等。

2、复合副词

复合副词是指由两个或两个以上简单词构成的副词,例如:anyway, nowhere, heretoforesometimes, upstairs, maybe, inside 等。

3、派生副词

派生副词是指由其它词类加副词后缀构成的副词。最常见的副词后缀是-ly,例如clearly, possibly, obviously, generally, exactly等。其它的副词后缀还有-wise, -ward(s)等。例如piecewise, homewards, seawards, onward, afterwards 等。派生副词表示方式、态度、精确性等,在正式语体中使用频繁,如obviously, possibly, generally, entirely, particularly, exactly等。

4、固定副词词组

有些固定词组也可以作为副词来用,这种副词在形式上多种多样,词组中的每个单词都已经失去了本来的意义,而是整个词组表达副词的含义,如of course, kind of, at last等。

14.3与形容词同形的副词、形容词加-ly形成的副词

有些副词与形容词同形,如fast, easy, fair, firm, slow, clear, quick, clean, short, close, hard等。例如:

He's a very fast learner, very sensitive to people's feelings and very pastoral in his attitude.

他学习得很快,对别人的心情非常敏感,并且态度非常虔诚。

He couldn't write fast enough to pass the exam.

他写得不够快,过不了考试。

Predicting weather is by no means an easy task.

天气预报决不是一件容易的事情。

Last time we played here two years ago, he beat me easy.

上次两年前我们也是在这里比赛,他很轻松地赢了我。

We consider Senator Jeffords a fair and honorable person.

我们认为参议员杰佛兹是一个公平诚实的人

The government must now decide whether Microsoft has played fair in its bid to win customers and whether consumers will continue to benefit if competition continues to shrink.

政府现在必须决定微软在赢得客户的投标中是否光明磊落,以及如果竞争持续缩水,客户是否能继续受益。

She had made a firm promise.

她做了一个坚定的承诺。

We will hold firm to our tough fiscal rules which have helped deliver stability and sustain growth.

我们必须坚定地执行我们强硬的财政政策,这有利于经济稳定和持续增长。

 

上面这些副词与形容词同形,而同时这些形容词又可以通过加-ly后缀的方式形成副词。通过两种不同手段形成的两种副词,有些含义相同,有些含义差别很大。这些词的主要用法如下:

clean(完全地,径直地)/cleanly(干净利落地)

When the fisherman saw his baby son, all thoughts about the splendour of the sea-king’s palace went clean out of his head.

当渔夫看到了他的宝贝儿子,所有关于海王宫殿辉煌的想法都抛到九霄云外去了。

Anyway, I've been so concerned about you, and I clean forgot to feel sorry for myself.

不管怎么说,我是那么关心你,以至于我完全忘记了为自己难过。

Did he lack the courage to kill the fish cleanly?

他没有勇气干净利落地把鱼杀掉吗?

clear(清楚地、完全地)/clearly(清楚地、显然地)

The Savage had seized him by the collar, lifted him clear over the chair and, with a smart box on the ears, sent him howling away.

野人抓住他的领子,把他从椅子上完全提起来,给了他一个响亮的耳光,让他哭嚎着走了。

The other patients steer clear of me because they think I can't speak at all.

其它的病人完全避开我,因为他们认为我根本不会讲话。

Some people cannot see clearly because the lenses in their eyes do not focus the light on the retina.

有些人不能清楚地看到我,因为他们眼内透镜不能将光线聚焦在视网膜上。

在下列结构中用clearclearly都可

This time, the American people have said loud and clear they don't want their president impeached.

这次美国人民的声音大而且清楚,他们不希望他们的总统被弹劾。

Winston spoke clearly so that everyone could hear.

温斯顿说得很清楚,所以每个人都能听见。

close(近地)/closely(严密地)

Tamara was adopted by a Jewish couple who lived close to Central park in Manhattan.

塔玛拉被住在曼哈顿中心公园附近的一对犹太夫妇收养了。

All life on Earth is closely related.

地球上所有的生命形式都是密切相关的。

full(准确地)/fully(完全地)

They knew full well he was the main danger.

他们非常清楚地知道他是主要的危险人物。

Earlier, the Israeli army claimed to have fully withdrawn from Palestinian territories.

早些时候,以色列军队声称他们已经完全地撤出巴勒斯坦地区。

hard(努力地)/hardly(几乎不)

I've worked hard since I was 14 and I don't expect to depend on the government to take care of me in my old age.

我从14岁起就努力工作,我不期望在我老的时候依靠政府来照顾。

I hardly recognized his face, but I could recognize his clothes.

我几乎认不出他的脸,但是我能认出他的衣服。

high(高地)/highly(非常地、高地(抽象))

He stood up, grinning, and held his glass high.

他站起来,咧开嘴笑着,高高地举起玻璃杯。

Neighbors expressed shock and spoke highly of the family.

邻居们都表示震惊,对这家人评价非常高。

just(刚好)/justly(公平地)

“When I was just a boy,” Dougherty said, “my father spoke very fondly of his days in Boston.”

当我还是一个孩子的时候,我的父亲非常开心地谈起他在波士顿的日子。

Our role is to do the work properly, justly and fairly.

我们的任务是把工作做得正确、公平、合理。

late(迟地)/lately(最近)

“I stayed up late last night getting ready for today's class,” he said.

我昨天晚上睡得很晚,在准备今天的课。

Have you heard from Joyce or Amy lately?

你最近有乔伊斯或者艾美的消息吗?

 

most(最地)/mostly(主要地)

She considered most carefully whether life was or was not worth living before she killed herself.

自杀前她对到底生活是否值得继续下去这个问题考虑得最仔细。

In years past spammers and virus writers were mostly sociopathic creeps.

在过去这些年里垃圾邮件发送者和病毒制造者大都是反社会的蠕虫。

near(近地)/nearly几乎

They lived near enough to one another to share a cab home.

他们住得很近,可以共乘一辆出租车。

There are 167 million coffee drinkers in the U.S., and they consumed nearly 6.3 billion gallons last year alone.

在美国有1.67亿人喝咖啡,他们仅去年一年就几乎消费了63亿加仑咖啡。

Sharp(尖锐地、精准地)/sharply(敏捷地)

They are supposed to meet in the pub at eight o'clock sharp, but do not get down to business until 10 past.

他们本来决定八点整在酒吧见面,但是十点都过了也没谈正经事。

He jumped into the driver's seat and sharply pulled the handbrake.

他跳上了司机的座位,敏捷地拉上了手刹。

Short(短地)/shortly(立刻)

He wanted to be more than he was and fell short.

他想提高自己,但是却没有成功。

He had been killed in the war shortly after Sara was born.

萨拉出生后不久他就在战争中死去。

Wide(大地)/widely(广泛地)

She opened the door wide without another word and stood back to let the two women into her flat.

她没再说一句话,敞开大门,站在一边,让这两个妇女进了她的公寓。

President Lyndon Johnson - still widely popular - was dispatching the first U.S. ground troops to Vietnam.

林登·约翰逊总统,仍然很受欢迎,把第一批美国地面部队送到越南

 


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