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初高中大学英语语法系列24

2019-1-29 09:35| 发布者: admin| 查看: 109| 评论: 0

摘要: 初高中大学英语语法系列24免费赠送福利:1)外刊精读笔记405篇2)金融时报好句子33篇3)领导人演讲致辞双语52篇4)纽约时报双语31篇5)英语热词29篇请加个人WX:Blucestudy py圈6.2.2 代词与先行项 “性”的一致(Pr ...

初高中大学英语语法系列24

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6.2.2 代词与先行项 的一致(Pronoun Concord in “gender” with its Antecedent

是词类分析中用来区分阳性阴性中性通性或者区分有生命无生命的语法范畴。词语指现实世界中的性时,所指的是自然性。英语语法范畴里的只体现于代词和少数名词,而且一般只用自然性,如he, she, it, prince, princess等。英语的人名通常具有明显的性别特征,但通性名词是不分性别的,用阳性或阴性代词均可,不过通常用阳性代词为多,有时只是需要考虑某种职业特点使用相应的代词,如nurse she替代较普遍,而engineer则多用he替代。在法律文书或正式语体中,使用he or she指称通性名词。对于一些通性名词,如说话者不知其性别,可用中性代词it,但如果知道其性别就需根据实际情况选择相应的代词。

She found herself standing in front of the boy, looking down at him.

不知不觉中,她站在了那个男孩的面前,低头看着他。

I recall so much how the boy was crying as we beat him.

那个男孩被我们打时哭泣的情景,回想起来依然历历在目。

Their mother had drunk herself into a three-day stupor.

他们的母亲喝酒喝得昏迷了3天。

Her name was Amy, but no one called her by it: names were not encouraged in this house.

她叫艾米,但没人叫她这个名字:在这个家中,不提倡直呼其名。

Such tasks as these can only be carried out when the engineer has also derived methods of organising his knowledge on a wide range of subjects such as efficiency, reliability, safety, economics, elegance, marketability etc, in a coherent way.

只有当工程师获得逻辑地组织广泛的学科领域知识(如效率、可靠性、安全性、经济学、高雅、市场可销售性等)的各种方法时,这类任务才能得以执行。

Sometimes the patients care whether the nurse has a smile on her face.

有时,病人在乎护士脸上是否有笑容。

When officers arrived, they found that Montgomery had been showing the infant to her hometown friends and treating it as her own child.

当官员们到达时,他们发现蒙哥马利已经把婴儿当作象自己的亲生子一样,抱给家乡的朋友看了。

Before seeing the new doctor, make sure he or she sees your old tests.

让新医生给你看病之前,务必叫他或她查看你的病历。

Once the child is seven years old, he or she can run the account.

小孩一旦到了7岁,他或她就能算这个数。

Let each reader come up with his or her own response to this new book.

让每个读者对这本新书产生自己的反响。

对表示无生命的中性先行词,应使用相应的中性代词,如ititsitself。但是,为表达说话者的情感,有时可用人称代词指代中性名词,如shipcarcatsun historygarden等。

It is a book about trivial people, but not a trivial book.

这是一本关于平凡人的书,但不是一本平凡的书。

When a school gets another student, it gets the extra amount of money that any other school in the district would get for that student.

当一个学校招收另外一个学生时,它就获得一笔额外的钱。这笔钱本来是这个地区的任何一个其它学校招收该生时的收入。

Local residents are proud of their town, with its refined old-fashioned ambience.

当地居民为他们的城市而骄傲,为城市优雅和古朴的环境而自豪。

And the machine itself is pretty expensive pound300 per year for ever, for a machine with a capital cost of perhaps pound150.

对于一台价值约150英镑的机器,机器本身每年运转需300英镑,这是一笔相当可观的数目。

We had a cat recently, too, but she just didn't like staying inside all the time.

我们也养了一只猫,不过她总是不愿意呆在家里。

The sun bathed us in her warm glow.

太阳把温暖的阳光洒在我们的身上。

6.2.3 代词与先行项人称一致(Pronoun Concord in “person” with its Antecedent

人称也是一种语法范畴(参见6.1.1),通常分为第一人称,第二人称和第三人称。代词的三种人称各有单、复数形式。代词与先行项保持人称上的一致,主要是指在句子或上下句中,代词和先行项必须保持人称上的一致性。同时也指在语篇中,说话人或作者的发话角度要始终如一,或以第一人称发话,或以第二人称发话,这种视角一旦选定就不能轻易改变。

And my brother and I, from that day, curiously, became very close and I don't know if it was a pact we both made

有趣的是,从那天起,我的兄弟和我变得非常亲密,我不知这是不是我们俩默挈配合的原因。

You and your colleagues will agree that you're coming to the end of that assignment and you get a new one.

你与同事将有这样一致的看法:那个任务一结束,你们就会有新任务。

He and Melanie met on a blind date at the University of Texas, and they got married the next year.

他和梅勒妮的第一次约会是在得克萨斯州大学,第二年他们就结婚了。

The children are so excited about this award that they are going to have a big display on the wall to remind them of what they have done.

孩子们对获得奖励非常兴奋,因此就把奖品挂在墙上展示,好让人家记住他们做了什么。

The girl was a gifted shoemaker, but there was something insolent about her, perhaps it was the way she held her head high with her glorious abundant hair flowing free that somehow irritated Emily.

这个女孩天生就是个绣鞋的,不过身上还是有点傲气。或许是她那抬头时的神态,那闪闪发亮、浓浓飘逸的黑发让爱米莉有些恼怒。

The boy told the teacher he was allowed to give only his mother's cell phone number.

那男孩跟老师说,他只允许把母亲的手机号码告诉别人。

6.3 代词的格(Pronoun Case

用来区分词语之间的句法关系。英语的格靠以下三种方式来实现:(1) 屈折变化(如teacher, teacher’s);(2) 置于介词之后(如with a man);(3) 词序变化(如John kissed Jane, and Jane kicked John)。拉丁语的格主要依靠词语的形态变异,并有不同的名称,如宾格、主格、与格等。古希腊语词有五种格,芬兰语词有十五种格。英语代词有三种格:主格(Subjective case),宾格(Objective case)和属格(Genitive case)。在通常的情况下,人称代词在句子中作主语时用主格,作宾语或介词补足语时用宾格,属格则表示所有关系。

6.3.1 代词的主格(Subjective Pronoun

代词的主格是代词作为主语或主语补足语时的一种形式。人称代词的主格有第一、第二、第三人称以及人称的单复数之区别(详见6.1.1)。其它类型的代词,作主格、宾格的形式相同。

I'm allowed to have dinner with someone, aren't I?

允许我和别人一起吃饭,对吗?

I'm going to get into trouble, aren't I?

我会遇到麻烦,是吗?

Shall we have a chat in your room?

可以到你房间里聊聊天吗?

Shall we terminate our conference for the night?

今晚的会就开到这里,好吗?

You never know what will happen.

谁也不知将会发生什么?

One should think the answers to these questions go hand in hand.

人人应该认为这些问题的答案是相互有联系的。

This is Mr. Kennedy.

这是肯尼迪先生。

These are company car drivers who will be among the first to feel the heat from the Government's attempts to combat global warming.

这些就是首先会感觉到政府应对全球变暖的热情的公司汽车司机。

These are students who are taking some version of a course taught from an algebra book.

这些学生从代数课里学了一些书本上的某个说法。

These are the doctors who study the tumours, decide which drugs to prescribe, and how to treat the patient.

这些就是研究肿瘤的、决定开哪种药和怎么治疗病人的医生。

These are issues that need to be brought to our attention and that we need to be aware of.

这些是需要我们引起注意和明确的问题。

6.3.2 代词的宾格(Objective Pronoun

代词作动词或介词的宾语时用宾格形式。作主语补足语时代词也用宾格形式。人称代词有一套宾格形式(me, us, you, him, her, it, them, whom),其它类型的代词作宾格时,形式与主格相同。

Fortunately, the seller, who could have charged me a lot more, was a real gentleman.

那个卖主本来可以收我更多的钱,但幸运的是,他是个地道的绅士。

“I think the gaffer has probably protected us too much in the past," he said.

他说:我想那老头子过去或许照顾我们太周到了。

If Annie betrayed you one day, I wouldn't be surprised.

假如安妮背叛了你,我不会感到惊讶。

Latham then recanted his statement, claiming police had coerced him into making a false confession.

后来雷瑟姆收回了自己声明,他说警察逼他做了假供。

Such wrangling taught her valuable political lessons.

这样的争论给她上几堂很有价值的政治课。

At the last moment before the waiter left them, Marcus grabbed the menu and chose a lobster pasta.

就在服务员要离开的最后时刻,马库斯一把抓住菜单,点了个龙虾炒面。

Whom have you turned to for help?

你向谁寻求帮助了?

He signed autographs for the teenagers and gave each a hug and kiss.

他给年轻人亲笔签了名,然后,一一和他们拥抱、吻别。

”I want to help anyone who makes it easier to reintegrate inmates back into society," he said.

他说:凡是能使劳改释放者更易重新返回社会的人,我都会资助。

6.3.3 代词的属格(Genitive Pronoun

按照代词的语法功能,代词的属格可分为名词性属格代词(Nominal genitive pronoun)和限定性属格代词(Determinative genitive pronoun)。名词性属格代词也称为物主代词(详见6.1.2)。限定性属格代词有my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their

I knew that my destiny was in my hands, and that I needed to ensure that my skills were always up to date.

我过去就知道自己的命运掌握在自己的手中,也知道我需要使自己的技术不断更新。

If you keep to your promise- to behave yourself in future when I have guests- then I shall try to keep to my promise.

如果你能守信——将来我有客人时你要守规矩——那么,我也将坚守诺言。

One miserable night, after quitting his job as a short-order cook, getting beaten up, and having his last paycheck stolen, he gave up and bought a plane ticket back to Ohio.

那是个悲伤的夜晚:他辞去快餐厨师工作之后,被人打了一段,又被人偷了最后一张工资支票。他只好放弃一切,买了张返回俄亥俄的机票。

Despite getting a little help from her parents she left college with student debts totalling more than pound12,000.

尽管她的父母给了她一点资助,但她离开学校时,欠下总数高出12000英镑的学生贷款。

Boston is notorious for its traffic chaos.

波士顿因其交通混乱而臭名远扬。

In the wild, the insect lays its eggs in banana leaves and coconut shells, which collect a little water.

在野外,昆虫在香蕉叶和椰子壳上产卵,因为上面能积蓄少量的水。

But our target is definitely to be No. 1 in China.

但是,我们的目标肯定是要成为中国第一。

This test is going to give you and your teachers a lot of information about how you're doing before the end of the year.

这项测试将为你们和你们的老师提供大量有关你们在年底之前学习状况的信息。

Earlier in the summer, during the interval at the opera, a friend overheard two fellow enthusiasts discussing their holiday plans.

初夏一场歌剧的剧间休息时,一个朋友无意中听到两个歌迷在谈论他们假日的计划。

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