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中英双语(领导人演讲致辞):王毅在美国智库发表演讲:机遇还是挑战,伙伴还是对手?

2018-9-30 10:35| 发布者: admin| 查看: 550| 评论: 0

摘要: 机遇还是挑战,伙伴还是对手? ——王毅在美国智库发表演讲:机遇还是挑战,伙伴还是对手? 2018年9月28日,纽约 各位朋友, Dear friends, 大家好!感谢美国对外关系委员会的邀请,让我有机会同各位进行交流。 ...

机遇还是挑战,伙伴还是对手?

——王毅在美国智库发表演讲:机遇还是挑战,伙伴还是对手?

 

2018928日,纽约

 

各位朋友,

 

Dear friends,

 

大家好!感谢美国对外关系委员会的邀请,让我有机会同各位进行交流。

 

I’m happy for today’s opportunity to meet you. I want to thank the Council on Foreign Relations, especially my old friend Richard Haass, whom I have known for several decades, for inviting me to come here to talk to you.

 

今年是中美发表建交公报40周年,对于中美双方来说都是一个承前启后的重要节点。我们有必要用历史的望远镜客观审视彼此发生的变化,校准相互之间的关系,把握好今后前进的方向。

 

This year marks the fortieth anniversary of the issuance of a communique of diplomatic relations between our two countries. It is a critical year for both sides. It is important for us to objectively view the shifting dynamics in each other’s countries with a historical perspective, calibrate our relations, and keep the relationship on the right track.

 

40年来,在中美几代领导人和各界人士的不懈努力下,两国合作取得重大成果,促进了我们各自的发展,惠及到我们两国的人民。两国关系产生的巨大红利,远远超出当年打开中美关系大门的两国先人们的想象。

 

In the past four decades, thanks to the efforts made by leaders and people from various sectors of both sides, our cooperation has come a long way, boosted our respective development, and delivered benefits to people of both countries. The tremendous dividends of this relationship have gone far beyond the imagination of the forerunners who opened the door of China-U.S. engagement.

 

但与此同时,作为历史文化、社会制度、发展水平存在明显差异的两个国家,彼此之间交往越密切,利益越交融,各种疑虑、矛盾,甚至摩擦也都会随之而来。这并不奇怪,也不必惊慌,关键是如何看待、如何判断、如何处理。

 

At the same time, we are also two countries vastly different in history, culture, social system, and level of development. The closer our engagement, the more closely entwined our interests, maybe various suspicions and even frictions may ensue. This is not surprising, and it is also no cause for panic. What’s important is how these differences should be viewed, evaluated, and handled.

 

目前我们面前的问题很多,但症结到底是什么?我认为,症结说到底还是要从美国对中国的认知中去寻找。

 

Indeed, we are faced with a host of issues. I had a small-group discussion with some members of the Council before I came here, and I think we are both thinking about what is the crux of these issues. I think these issues boil down to how the United States perceives China.

 

一些美国朋友从西方传统现实主义理论出发,根据几百年来其它大国兴衰起落的规律,认定国强必霸,因此认为中国今后也会称霸,甚至会挑战和取代美国在世界上的领导地位。我首先要清晰地告诉各位朋友,这显然是一个重大的战略误判,是对美国利益和美国未来极为有害的错误预期。但遗憾的是,这种带有自我想象的猜忌正在蔓延,并且放大了两国间存在的矛盾,催生了新的疑虑,也使中美之间解决具体问题遭遇更多的阻力和障碍。我在此要明确地告诉大家:中国一定会走出一条与传统大国不同的发展道路。这条有中国特色的道路决定了中国决不会重蹈国强必霸的覆辙,也决定了中国既不会成为美国,也不会挑战美国,更不会取代美国。

 

Some American friends have proceeded from the Western theory of realism and, based on the laws governing the rise and fall of historical powers in the past several hundred years, believe that a strong country is about to seek hegemony. And their conclusion is that China is about to seek hegemony in the future and even challenge or displace U.S. leadership. I want to tell you very clearly that this is a serious strategic misjudgment. It is a misguided anticipation that will be extremely detrimental to U.S. interests and the future of the United States. However, regrettably, this self-imagined suspicion is spreading, and it has also amplified the differences between our two countries, and even led to new suspicions. It has also made it more difficult for us to address the specific issues that exist. I want to tell you very clearly that China will follow a path of development different from historical powers. It is a path with Chinese features. It means that China will not repeat the old practice of a strong country seeking hegemony. I don’t think China will become the United States, and China will not challenge the United States. Still less will China take the place of the United States.

 

中国走的是一条和平发展之路。作为拥有五千年文明积淀的东方大国,中国人历来崇尚以和为贵,从来就没有对外扩张的基因。600多年前,郑和率领当时世界上最强大的船队七次远航太平洋和西印度洋,到访30多个国家和地区,没有侵占一寸土地。这对于当年热衷于殖民扩张的西方国家来说,简直是不可思议,但中国确实做到了。更何况生活在全球化的今天,和平、发展、合作、共赢已是时代潮流,再搞侵略扩张那一套早已此路不通。因此,我们不会也不可能重蹈历史覆辙,而是立志走出一条全新的道路。也许很多人还不知道,坚持走和平发展道路已经被写入了中华人民共和国宪法和中国共产党党章,成为我们必须遵循的国法和党规,充分表明了中国追求和平的坚定决心。

 

China follows a path of peaceful development. China is a big country in the East with a five-thousand-year civilization. The Chinese believe in peace. There’s not a single bone of making external expansionism in the body of the Chinese. As early as over six hundred years ago, the Chinese navigator Zheng He led the biggest fleet in the world to the Pacific and west Indian Oceans on seven expeditions, visiting over thirty countries and regions, not taking a single inch of land. That was actually quite inconceivable for those Western powers who were busy making colonial expansion, but the Chinese did that. Moreover, we have come into an age of globalization when peace, development, and win-win are the call of the times, and the old practice of aggression and expansion can no longer work. Hence, China will not repeat a historical path, nor is it possible for China to ever follow that path. The truth is China is determined to follow a new path. Maybe not that many people know that the commitment to the path of peaceful development has been incorporated into the constitution of the People’s Republic of China and the charter of the Communist Party of China. That means it has become a part of national law and the party charter that we must observe. That speaks to China’s firm commitment to peace.

 

中国走的是一条合作共赢之路。博施众利、兼济天下是中国人几千年来培育起来的传统理念,我们从精神深处不接受弱肉强食、赢者通吃的丛林法则。在中国与周边国家上千年的交往中,我们始终是怀柔远仁,厚往薄来。大量历史事实可以证明这点。在古代丝绸之路上,我们秉持的就是开放包容,互利共赢。40年前,中国开启的改革开放征程,旨在同世界各国相互交融,合作发展。5年前,提出共建一带一路重大倡议,如今已成为国际上最受欢迎的合作平台。到目前为止,已经有130多个国家和国际组织与中国签署了合作协议。之所以如此成功,就在于我们从一开始就秉持共商共建共享的合作共赢理念。今年11月,我们还将举办首届中国国际进口博览会,主动让各国更多分享中国的机遇,这在世界上也是首创。

 

China follows a path of win-win through cooperation. Serving the larger interests and delivering benefits to all is something that is inherent in the Chinese tradition. We don’t believe in the law of the jungle whereby the strong prey on the weak or the winner takes all. In thousands of years of engagement between China and its neighbors, China believes in goodwill and mutual respect, believes in giving more and taking less. China also believes in openness and inclusiveness for win-win benefits in developing both the ancient and the current Silk Roads. Forty years ago, China launched the reform and opening up endeavor for mutual engagements and cooperation with other countries and regions. Five years ago China put forward the Belt and Road Initiative, which has become the most popular cooperation platform in today’s world. So far over 130 countries and international organizations have signed cooperation agreements with China. The reason for its success is a sense of togetherness in undertaking this initiative. This November China will host the first International Import Expo. That is a creative move. We want to invite people in to share China’s opportunities.

 

中国走的是一条求同存异之路。中国哲学的精髓在于万物并育而不相害,道并行而不相悖。我们始终相信世界应该是多姿多彩的,各国可以和谐共处、交流互鉴。近代以来,中国曾尝试引进过各种外来制度,叫作西学中用,但都水土不服,无法生根。最后还是在中国共产党的领导下,找到了既适应中国国情又契合时代潮流的发展道路,取得了巨大成功。国际权威机构民调屡次显示,中国民众对政府的满意度和对未来的信心在世界上始终名列前茅。这条道路,就是中国特色社会主义道路,既然它是对的,是历史和人民作出的选择,那么我们就不应放弃,而是要坚定不移地走下去,越走越稳,越走越好。

 

China follows a path of seeking common ground while setting aside differences. The Chinese believe that, as all living things can live in harmony without harming each other, we can and should have different ways—run forward, side by side—without interfering with each other. We believe in a diverse world where countries can live in harmony and learn from each other. In contemporary times China once made attempts at introducing various foreign systems, but none of them worked on Chinese soil. Eventually, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, we have found a path of development that fits China’s national conditions and the trend of our time. That has achieved tremendous success. The international authoritative institutions survey shows that the Chinese people are really confident about the future of China and satisfied with their government. The rating of China ranks among the top. Well, this path is a path of socialism with Chinese features. Since this is the right path, we will stay on this path as we move forward.

 

中国古代圣贤孔子主张:君子和而不同己所不欲勿施于人。这些充满真理和智慧的思想同样适用于国与国之间的关系。尊重彼此差异、学会换位思考,才能达到真正的和。这个世界上没有放之四海而皆准的发展模式,国与国交往的目的恰恰是在承认不同的前提下增进相互了解、彼此和平共处。历史反复证明,一定要按照自己的标准来改造对方,执意把外来的制度强加于人,大多难以成功,不少还会引发灾难性后果。我要强调的是,不管过去、现在还是将来,中国既不会照搬外国的模式,也不会要求别国复制中国的做法。

 

The Chinese ancient philosopher Confucius believed that a gentleman should seek harmony in diversity and should not do to others what one would not like himself. We believe that also applies to state-to-state relations. We respect our differences, think from others’ perspective. We can achieve true harmony. There’s no one size that fits all in today’s world. It is important that we enhance mutual understanding and live in peace and harmony as we develop state-to-state relations. History has shown that if one is bent on remolding the other according to one’s own standards or insists on imposing one’s system upon others, most probably that would not work, and even invite disastrous implications or consequences. I want to emphasize the China will not—did not copy foreign pattern and will not copy foreign pattern, and China will not ask others to copy China’s pattern either.

 

各位朋友,

 

Dear friends,

 

坚持和平发展、合作共赢、求同存异,这是中国坚定的信念。几十年来,中国不仅通过自己的努力让13亿多人民过上越来越好的生活,而且还为维护世界整体和平与繁荣、促进各国人民共同利益和福祉作出着越来越大的贡献。

 

Peaceful development, cooperation, and seeking common ground is China’s firm conviction. The last few decades have seen over 1.3 billion Chinese people getting a better life, and at the same time China is making a greater contribution to the peace and prosperity of the world and promoting shared interests and well-being of people in all countries.

 

在当今这个充满不确定性和不稳定性的世界里,中国扮演的到底是一个什么样的角色?发挥了什么样的作用?我要告诉大家的是:

 

In this world rife with uncertainties and instability, what role is China playing? Let me tell you the following.

 

中国已经成为维护世界和平的力量。建国近70年来,中国没有主动挑起过任何一场战争和冲突。我们同绝大多数陆上邻国和平解决了边界问题。在南海,尽管中国的岛礁被非法侵占,但我们保持了最大程度的克制,承诺通过和平方式解决争端,并且同东盟国家制定了共同遵守的地区规则,使一度风高浪急的南海局势趋于稳定。在世界战火纷飞的每一个角落,都有中国维和人员的身影。中国已经是联合国维和行动第二大出资国和五常中派遣维和军事人员最多的国家。中国军舰连续10年在亚丁湾、索马里海域执行护航,先后维护了6000多艘船舶的安全。

 

China has become a force for world peace. In its nearly seventy-year history of the People’s Republic, China has never provoked any war or conflict. We have peacefully settled our boundary questions with most of our land neighbors. In the South China Sea, the Chinese islands and reefs had been illegally occupied, but China has exercised utmost restraint and undertaken in written form to settle the disputes through peaceful means. Together with ASEAN countries, we have developed regional rules to be observed by all, thus easing the once-tense situation. And in every place of conflict and war, we can find Chinese peacekeepers. China is the top contributor of military peacekeepers among P-5 and the second-largest contributor of U.N. peacekeeping funds. And for ten years running, Chinese military ships have provided escort missions for over six thousand ships in the waters of the Gulf of Aden and Somalia.

 

中国已经成为拉动全球增长的引擎。中国多年来对全球增长的贡献率超过30%,是世界经济最主要的发动机。1997年亚洲金融危机肆虐之时,中国坚持人民币不贬值,宁愿自己承受压力,支持周边邻国渡过难关。2008年国际金融危机席卷全球,中国经济力挽狂澜,强劲增长,成为稳定世界经济的压舱石,并为之后的复苏作出了不可替代的贡献。目前,中国的中等收入群体已达3亿人以上,国际机构预测中国有望成为全球第一大市场,今后每年进口将超过2万亿美元。中国经济正在从高速增长向高质量发展过渡,对外开放程度势必日益扩大,必将为世界带来更多的发展机遇。

 

China has become an engine for global growth. Over the years, China has contributed seventy percent of global growth, thus becoming a—(inaudible)—engine of global growth. In 1997, when Asia was ravaged by a financial crisis, despite huge pressure on its currency China has kept the value of its currency stable to support its neighbors. In 2008, during the sweeping international financial crisis, the Chinese economy bucked the trend to register strong growth, thus becoming an anchor of global growth, thus playing an irreplaceable role in the recovery that followed. Now there are over three hundred million Chinese people in the middle income group. According to some forecasts, China is expected to become the largest market, especially in retail goods, with an annual import of $2 trillion U.S. The Chinese economy is shifting from high-speed growth to high-quality growth. China is opening wider, bringing more development opportunities to the world.

 

中国已经成为消除贫困落后的模范。过去几十年,中国让近8亿人口摆脱了贫困,占全球减贫人口的70%以上,创造了人类历史上绝无仅有的奇迹。下一步,我们的目标是3年内再减贫3000万人,到2020年实现农村贫困人口全部脱贫,这将是世界发展领域具有里程碑意义的伟大成就。与此同时,作为最大的发展中国家,我们心系其它发展中伙伴,通过分享经验、提供援助、培训人员等各种方式支持发展中国家加快脱贫。中国迄今已向160多个国家和国际组织提供了近4000亿元人民币发展援助。中国通过南南合作援助基金、中国联合国和平与发展基金、气候变化南南合作基金等机制,积极帮助其它发展中国家落实2030年可持续发展议程。中国的对外援助坚持不附加任何政治条件,尊重受援国的需要,助力提升各国的自主和可持续发展能力,受到了发展中国家的广泛欢迎。

 

China has also become a model in poverty alleviation. The past few decades have seen nearly eight hundred million Chinese people lifted out of poverty, or over seventy percent of the global total. This is a miracle never seen in human history. Our current goal is to lift another forty million Chinese out of poverty in three years and lift all the remaining rural population out of poverty by 2020. This will be a great feat of vast significance for global growth. At the same time, as the biggest developing country, China is following closely how our developing partners are doing. Through experience-sharing, assistance, and personnel training, we are supporting poverty-alleviation efforts in other developing countries. So far China has sent to over 160 countries and international organizations nearly four hundred billion yuan in development aid. Through South-South Cooperation Fund, China-U.N. Peace and Development Fund, Climate Change South-South Cooperation Fund, and other mechanisms, we are helping other developing countries in implementing the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. China’s foreign assistance never comes with political strings attached. We respect the need of recipient countries and help them build capacity for independent and sustainable development. Thus, our foreign assistance has been—(inaudible)—by other developing countries.

 

中国已经成为国际反恐事业的盟友。恐怖主义是全人类的公敌。中国坚决反对一切形式的恐怖主义,决不让恐怖主义在中国960万平方公里国土内滋生蔓延,决不让中国任何一个地方成为恐怖主义的输出地,这本身就是中国为国际反恐事业作出的重大贡献。中国是国际反恐阵营的重要成员,深入参与联合国、上海合作组织等多边合作机制,帮助阿富汗、伊拉克等国提高反恐能力建设,并通过和平重建、推动对话和提供人道援助等多种方式铲除滋生恐怖主义的土壤。我们也同美方在反恐情报交流及打击反恐融资、网络恐怖主义等领域开展了卓有成效的合作。

 

China has become a force to rely on in the global fight against terrorism. Terrorism is an enemy of mankind. China stands firmly against terrorism in all manifestations, and it will never allow the spread of terrorism in its territory or allow any place of China to become an origin of terrorism. This is China’s largest—a big, major contribution to the global fight against terrorism. China is an important member of the global campaign against terrorism. We are deeply involved in the U.N. and other multilateral cooperation mechanisms to help Afghanistan, Iraq, and other countries in enhancing capacity-building through peaceful reconstruction, through promoting peace talks, and development assistance. We are helping them to remove breeding ground. Between China and the U.S., we have effective cooperation and information-sharing in fighting terrorism and cutting terrorist financing.

 

中国已经成为斡旋热点问题的伙伴。中国参与了当今几乎所有热点问题的解决进程,在朝核、伊朗核、缅甸、阿富汗、叙利亚、南苏丹等问题解决进程中贡献中国智慧,提出中国方案,发挥着建设性作用。朝鲜半岛核问题无疑是中美两国合作的成功范例。中国始终坚持实现半岛无核化、维护半岛和平稳定、通过对话解决问题,积极推动美朝接触和南北关系缓和,为此发挥了不可替代的重要作用。由于中国的坚持和各方的努力,半岛形势出现了今年这样的重大转机。同中国的进一步合作,将继续是推进并完成半岛无核化的关键。

 

China has also become a partner in mediating hotspot issues. China has taken part in the settlement of almost all hotspot issues—in DPRK, Iran, Yemen, Afghanistan, Syria, South Sudan, and other issues. We are contributing our wisdom and solutions and playing a constructive role. On the peninsula nuclear issue, we see a paradigm of successful cooperation between China and the U.S. China is committed to denuclearization, peace/stability on the peninsula, and a negotiated end to the issue. We are encouraging the U.S.-DPRK engagement and improvement of inter-Korean relationship, thus playing an important role. It is because of China’s commitment and the efforts of all parties that we see a major turnaround on the peninsula this year, and further cooperation with China will become a key in promoting and completing denuclearization.

 

中国已经成为守护国际秩序的支柱。二战结束后,各国反省历史、思考未来,共同创立了联合国和建立在多边主义规则之上的国际秩序。中国是联合国的创始成员国和安理会常任理事国,始终积极融入现行国际体系,参与了当今世界几乎所有重要政府间国际组织,签署了300多项国际公约,在全球治理体系中发挥着越来越重要的作用。虽然现行国际体系并非百分之百完美,但总体上是行之有效的,必须加以遵循和维护。中国不会也不可能另起炉灶。尤其是早已确立的多边主义、自由贸易等国际准则决不应受到动摇。改革和完善,是为了使其更加公正合理,更加适应当今形势的需要。

 

China has become a pillar for international order. After the Second World War, countries have done some reflections, and together they founded the U.N. and international order based on multilateralism. China is a founding member of the U.N. and a permanent member on the Security Council. China is actively integrated in the existing international system. We have joined almost all major international organizations and signed over three hundred international conventions. China is playing an increasingly important role in global governance. Although the existing international order is not one hundred percent perfect, but it is effective on the whole. So we must observe and preserve the existing order. China cannot and will not start a new order. Multilateralism, free trade, and other well-established international norms must never be undermined. To reform and improve a system is only to make it more just and equitable, and more responsive to the current circumstances.

 

各位朋友,

 

Dear friends,

 

对于美国以及世界各国来说,一个坚持走和平、合作、开放道路的中国,到底是机遇还是挑战?一个在国际舞台上发挥积极和建设性作用的中国,究竟是伙伴还是对手?相信只要不是怀有偏见或别有用心的人,都一定能够作出理性的判断,给出正确的答案。

 

For the U.S. and for other countries around the world a China that pursues peace, cooperation, and openness and opportunity or a challenge. Is a China that plays a positive and a constructive role on the global stage a partner or a rival? I believe that anyone with no bias or hidden agenda will come to a sensible conclusion.

 

一位中国作家曾写下这样的话,人生的道路虽然漫长,但紧要处常常只有几步。”69年前,美国政府对中国采取敌视政策,导致中美关系陷入长达23年的隔绝与对抗。46年前,尼克松总统打开中美重新交往的大门,开启了两国和平繁荣之路。

 

A Chinese writer once observed in the long journey of a person’s life only a few steps are critical. Sixty-nine years ago, the then U.S. administration took a hostile policy toward China, leading to twenty-three years of estrangement and confrontation between China and the U.S. And then forty-six years ago, President Nixon opened the door to reengagement between our two countries, ushering in an era of peace and prosperity.

 

中美关系是我们共同的资产和财富,凝聚着几代人的心血和努力,需要我们备加呵护和珍惜。就像眼前的这只杯子,打碎容易,复原很难。当前,中美关系再次走到了十字路口。如果双方能积极包容看待彼此,拓展深化正面合作,妥善管控分歧矛盾,就能迈过这道沟坎,从此踏上更宽广的征程,开辟更美好的前景。

 

Now, the relationship between our two countries is a common asset. It is the result of generations of people’s efforts, so it must be preserved and valued. Just like this glass, it is easy to break it, but it will be difficult to restore a broken glass. So now we see this relationship coming once again to a crossroads. If our two sides can look at each other in a positive and accommodating light, expand and deepen cooperation, and manage our differences then we can overcome the current difficulties to start a more promising journey to a brighter future.

 

在此关键时刻,需要两国各界有识之士,切实担负起应尽的责任,以实际行动维护中美关系的健康稳定发展,共同推动中美关系朝着正确方向继续前行。历史将铭记那些穿透迷雾、走在前边的人。

 

At this critical juncture, I will count on the people with vision in both countries to assume their responsibilities and take concrete actions to maintain healthy and stable growth of the relationship. Let us together take this relationship forward in the right direction. History will remember those who take the lead through the mist.

 

谢谢大家!

 

So this is—I want to say to you. Thank you.

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