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摘要: 2013年考研英语二真题答案及解析
 Section I Use of English 
  Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) 
  Given the advantages of electronic money, you might think that we would move quickly to the cashless society in which all payments are made electronically. ___1___, a true cashless society is probably not around the corner. Indeed, predictions of such a society have been ___2___ for two decades but have not yet come to fruition. For example, Business Week predicted in 1975 that electronic means of payment “would soon revolutionize the very ___3___ of money itself,” only to ___4___ itself several years later. Why has the movement to a cashless society been so ___5___ in coming? 
  Although e-money might be more convenient and may be more efficient than a payments system based on paper, several factors work __6___ the disappearance of the paper system. First, it is very ___7___ to set up the computer, card reader, and telecommunications networks necessary to make electronic money the ___8___ form of payment. Second, paper checks have the advantage that they ___9___ receipts, something that many consumers are unwilling to ___10___. Third, the use of paper checks gives consumers several days of "float"-it takes several days ___11___ a check is cashed and funds are ___12___ from the issuer’s account, which means that the writer of the check can earn interest on the funds in the meantime. ___13___ electronic payments are immediate, they eliminate the float for the consumer. Fourth, electronic means of payment ___14___ security and privacy concerns. We often hear media reports that an unauthorized hacker has been able to access a computer database and to alter information ___15___ there. 
  Because this is not an ___16___ occurrence, unscrupulous persons might be able to access bank accounts in electronic payments systems and ___17___ funds by moving them from someone else’s accounts into their own. The ___18___ of this type of fraud is no easy task, and a whole new field of computer science has developed to ___19___ security issues. A further concern is that the use of electronic means of payment leaves an electronic ___20___ that contains a large amount of personal data on buying habits. There are worries that government, employers, and marketers might be able to access these data, thereby encroaching on our privacy. 
  1. [A] However [B] Moreover [C] Therefore [D] Otherwise 
  2. [A] off [B] back [C] over [D] around 
  3. [A] power [B] concept [C] history [D] role 
  4. [A] reward [B] resist [C] resume [D] reverse 
  5. [A] silent [B] sudden [C] slow [D] steady 
  6. [A] for [B] against [C]with [D] on 
  7. [A] imaginative [B] expensive [C] sensitive [D] productive 
  8. [A] similar [B] original [C] temporary [D] dominant 
  9. [A] collect [B] provide [C] copy [D] print 
  10. [A] give up [B] take over [C] bring back [D] pass down 
  11. [A] before [B] after [C] since [D] when 
  12. [A] kept [B] borrowed [C] released [D] withdrawn 
  13. [A] Unless [B] Until [C] Because [D] Though 
  14. [A] hide [B] express [C] raise [D]ease 
  15. [A] analyzed [B] shared [C] stored [D] displayed 
  16. [A] unsafe [B] unnatural [C] uncommon [D] unclear 
  17. [A] steal [B] choose [C] benefit [D] return 
  18. [A] consideration [B] prevention [C] manipulation [D] justification 
  19. [A] cope with [B] fight against [C] adapt to [D] call for 
  20. [A] chunk [B] chip [C] path [D] trail 
  1-5: ADBDC 
  6-10: BBDBA 
  11-15: ADCCC 
  16-20: CABAD 
  1. [标准答案] [A] 
  [考点分析] 本题考察逻辑关系 
  [选项分析] 因为考察逻辑关系,所以需要我们先对填空前后的原文信息做定位分析:填空之后的信息为”a true cashless society is probably not around the corner .”(一个无现金社会不太可能马上出现),而文章之前的信息都是在说我们可能马上就进入一个无现金社会,两者之间出现了明显的转折关系,因此只有however符合题意。B. moreover表递进 C. therefore 表结果 D. Otherwise表对比 
  2. [标准答案] [D] 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义 
  [选项分析] 根据该句的but可知,其前后句子是转折关系。后一句是说这种形式的社会并没有真正有成果出来,所以前一句应该为这样的预测已经进行了二十年。其它选项不符合题意。 
  3. [标准答案] [B] 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及名词辨析 
  [选项分析] 该句意思为,1975年的《商业周刊》预测电子支付手段“将很快彻底改变货币本身的____”。四个选项中,A.为力量 C“历史” D“角色”,语义不正确,且如果选择 role的话,应该是复数roles, 因为是金钱的作用不止一个,故答案选B。 
  4. [标准答案] [D] 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析 
  [选项分析] 根据only知道,空格处所填单词词义应与前一句的”revolutionize”(变革)发生同义替换,因此ABCD四个选项中只有D.reverse (颠覆)符合。A. reward 奖赏 B. resist 抵抗 C. resume 重新开始,继续。 
  5. [标准答案] [C] 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析 
  [选项分析]根据上文得知,早在1975年就预测了无现金社会可能即将到来,而作者谈到实际上“真正的无现金社会很可能不会马上到来”,因此这种无现金社会只可能缓慢到来,故答案选择C。 A. silent沉寂的,B. sudden突然的,D. steady平稳的。 
  6.[标准答案] [B] 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及介词词义辨析 
  [选项分析] 填空所在段开头although表明对上一段的让步关系,上一段的观点为人们进入无现金时代的速度变缓慢的原因。因此这一段应该是说明尽管电子支付可能比纸币支付方式更方便更高效,然而以下几个方面解释了纸币系统“不会”消失的原因,只有B work against 违背、妨碍,符合题意。A. work for 为…而工作 C. work with 与…共事,对…起作用 D. work on 从事…工作,对…起作用,都不合适。 
  7.[标准答案] [B] 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析 
  8.[标准答案] [D] 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及形容词词义辨析 
  [选项分析]空格所在句译为...使得电子货币成为____支付方式,将四个选项带入,C, D是比较恰当的,再结合本文章的主旨,应该选择“占主导地位的,支配地位”这层意思的D选项。A. similar 相似的B. original原始的,独创的,都不合适。 
  9.[标准答案] [B] 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及名词词义辨析 
  [选项分析] 纸质支票支付拥有能够____收据的优势,而客户一般都不愿____。收据当然是由银行开具,所以只能选择provide。A. collect 收集收据,C. copy 复印收据,D. print打印收据都和实际生活不符合。 
  10.[标准答案] [A] 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及固定搭配 
  [选项分析]该动词短语的宾语是前文的something, 指代上文的advantage,纸质支票支付能够提供收据这一优势,肯定是消费者不愿放弃的。和优势相搭配的动词短语不能是B. take over接管,也不能是C. bring back拿回来,D. pass down传递、遗传也不符合。A. give up放弃一种优势,符合语境,为正确答案。 
  11.[标准答案] A 
  [考点分析] 上下文逻辑关系 
  [选项分析] 本句是来解释 “float”的。空格前面意为“需要花几天”后半句意为纸支票兑现。上文提到讲纸支票的兑现不像是电子支票,是不会马上完成的,所以在纸支票在兑现前要是需要时间的。A before “在。。。之前”。B after “在。。。之后”。C since “自从”。D when “当。。。的时候”。结合上下文意思,很明显只有A符合语境。 
  12. [标准答案] D 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析 
  [选项分析] 从“and”一词可以看出此题与此11题紧密相连,若能正确理解上一题,此处就很容易选出。意思是在纸支票兑现及钱从帐户取出之前,A kept “保持”。B borrowed “借”。C released “释放,发布”。D withdraw “取钱”。所以结合上下文可以得出只有D项符合语境。 
  13.[标准答案] C 
  [考点分析] 上下文逻辑关系 
  [选项分析]前句子含义是电子支票是及时的,后半句含义是用户不能享有“浮动”带来有好处。可以看出整句话是一个因为关系。A .Unless “除非”。 B .Until “直到。。。才”。C.Because “因为”。D .Though “然而”。根据上下文含义,应选C. 
  14.[标准答案] C 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析 
  [选项分析] 此处是一个短句,明显缺少一个谓语动词,通过最后一个单词concerns可以看出本句的含义是电子支付方式引发安全及隐私的问题。四个选项中只有raise和concerns搭配时符合文意。所以选C。 
  15. [标准答案] C 
  [考点分析] 后置定语 
  16. [标准答案] C 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析 
  [选项分析] 上文提出电子支票的坏处,本句话意思是“因为这种事情经常发生”,所以形容意思应为普遍的,但因为本句用的双重否定表肯定,所以选填词汇意思应为不普遍的。结合选项A unsafe “不安全”。B unnatural “不自然的”。C uncommon “不是普遍的” D 
  unclear “不清楚的”。所以只有C项符合本句话意思。 
  17. [标准答案] A 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词义辨析 
  [选项分析] 本句话是讲电子支票的存在的风险,含义是那些不道德的人就可能通过转移帐户从而偷取别人的存款。动词应为贬义,可以排除 [B] [C] [D]选项。故选[A]。 
  18. [标准答案] B 
  [考点分析] 上下文语义及名词义辨析 
  [选项分析] 上文提出电子支票的风险,本句话提出解决办法,但是防止此类诈骗不是容易的事。结合选项A consideration “考虑”。B prevetion “阻止,防止”。C manipulation “操纵” D jusitification“理由,辩护”。结合语境只有B符合。 
  19. [标准答案] A 
  [考点分析] 动词固定搭配 
  [选项分析] 根据上下文应该选一个“应对”安全问题含义的动词词组,所以可以排除C项和D项,B是“对抗,反抗”,A 是“处理应对”,所以A项是最佳答案。 
  20. [标准答案] D 
  [选项分析] 上下文语义及名词词义辨析 
  [考点分析] 本句提出电子支票的另一个风险,电子支票可追踪包括大量有关个人购物习惯的信息。根据文意可以排除A 项和B项,C path “小路,道路,强调路径。D trail “痕迹,踪迹”,符合上下文,所以选D。
 Section II Reading Comprehension 
  Part A 
  Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) 
  Text 1 
  In an essay entitled “Making It in America”, the author Adam Davidson relates a joke from cotton about just how much a modern textile mill has been automated: The average mill only two employees today,” a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.” 
  Davidson’s article is one of a number of pieces that have recently appeared making the point that the reason we have such stubbornly high unemployment and declining middle-class incomes today is also because of the advances in both globalization and the information technology revolution, which are more rapidly than ever replacing labor with machines or foreign worker. 
  In the past, workers with average skills, doing an average job,could earn an average lifestyle ,But ,today ,average is officially over. Being average just won’t earn you what it used to. It can’t when so many more employers have so much more access to so much more above average cheap foreign labor, cheap robotics, cheap software, cheap automation and cheap genius. Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra-their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment. 
  Yes, new technology has been eating jobs forever, and always will. But there’s been an acceleration. As Davidson notes,” In the 10 years ending in 2009, [U.S.] factories shed workers so fast that they erased almost all the gains of the previous 70 years; roughly one out of every three manufacturing jobs-about 6 million in total -disappeared. 
  There will always be changed-new jobs, new products, new services. But the one thing we know for sure is that with each advance in globalization and the I.T. revolution, the best jobs will require workers to have more and better education to make themselves above average. 
  In a world where average is officially over, there are many things we need to do to support employment, but nothing would be more important than passing some kind of G.I.Bill for the 21st century that ensures that every American has access to poet-high school education. 
  21. The joke in Paragraph 1 is used to illustrate_______ 
  [A] the impact of technological advances 
  [B] the alleviation of job pressure 
  [C] the shrinkage of textile mills 
  [D] the decline of middle-class incomes 
  22. According to Paragraph 3, to be a successful employee, one has to______ 
  [A] work on cheap software 
  [B] ask for a moderate salary 
  [C] adopt an average lifestyle 
  [D] contribute something unique 
  23. The quotation in Paragraph 4 explains that ______ 
  [A] gains of technology have been erased 
  [B] job opportunities are disappearing at a high speed 
  [C] factories are making much less money than before 
  [D] new jobs and services have been offered 
  24. According to the author, to reduce unemployment, the most important is_____ 
  [A] to accelerate the I.T. revolution 
  [B] to ensure more education for people 
  [C] ro advance economic globalization 
  [D] to pass more bills in the 21st century 
  25. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the text? 
  [A] New Law Takes Effect 
  [B] Technology Goes Cheap 
  [C] Average Is Over 
  [D] Recession Is Bad 
  21.标准答案: A 
  选项分析:根据题干提示信息,我们定位到文章第一段的最后两句“…a man and a dog. The man is there to feed the dog, and the dog is there to keep the man away from the machines.”, 说如自动化的纺织厂,他们只需要两个员工“一个人外加一条狗。人是负责喂狗的,狗是让人不要靠近机器的。”近年来考研阅读常常用故事或是笑话引出文章所要谈论的主题。因此,我们再继续看第二段内容。第二段引出文章话题:全球化和信息科技革命进步是造成失业率居高不下、中产阶级收入下降的主要原因。因此选择答案A。选项B为就业压力的缓解,与本文谈论话题向左;选项C现代纺织厂规模的缩减,望文生义;选项D中产阶级收入的减少,不是文章谈论的重点,文章重在谈论造成中产阶级收入的减少的原因。 
  22. 标准答案: D 
  选项分析:根据题干提示信息,我们定位到文章第三段的倒数第二句“Therefore, everyone needs to find their extra — their unique value contribution that makes them stand out in whatever is their field of employment”,“因此,人人都需要有另外的价值:异于常人的独特价值能够让他们在各自的雇佣市场上脱颖而出。” stand out与题干中的successful同义复现,题干中问我们为了成为成功的雇员,他必须怎么做。答案D中的contribute something unique是对their unique value contribution的同义改写,因此,答案选择D。其他三个选项均与文章内容不相符合。选项A,work on cheap software继续生产廉价的软件;选项B,ask for a moderate salary索要适当的薪水;选项C,adopt an average lifestyle选择一般的生活方式。 
  23. 标准答案:B 
  考点分析:此题考查考生对文章细节信息的定位和理解能力。此类题目的解题关键在于根据题干信息定位,本题的“Paragraph 4”,“quotation”即为定位信息。 
  24. 标准答案:B 
  选项分析:根据题干信息提示“unemployment”,结合自然段定位法,我们不难定位到文章倒数第二段最后一句“Here are the latest unemployment rates from…”下面是美国劳工局对美国25岁以上人群的最新失业率统计:高中学历都没有的失业率为13.8%;有高中学历,但没有大学学历的为8.7%;有大学或大专学历的为7.7%;有学士甚至更高学位的只有4.1%。从这句话可知失业率主要和员工的受教育程度相关。因此如果想要减少失业率,最重要的应该是选项B“确保更多的人受到教育”。ACD项均和文章不符。 
  25. 标准答案:C 
 Text 2 
  A century ago, the immigrants from across the Atlantic inclued settlers and sojourners. Along with the many folks looking to make a permanent home in the United States came those who had no intention to stay, and 7millin people arrived while about 2 million departed. About a quarter of all Italian immigrants, for exanmle, eventually returned to Italy for good. They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage. 
  Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants. We divide nemcomers into two categories: legal or illegal, good or bad. We hail them as Americans in the making, or our broken immigrantion system and the long political paralysis over how to fix it. We don’t need more categories, but we need to change the way we think about categories. We need to look beyond strick definitions of legal and illegal. To start, we can recognize the new birds of passage, those living and thriving in the gray areas. We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges. 
  Crop pickers, violinists, construction workers, entrepreneurs, engineers, home health-care aides and physicists are among today’s birds of passage. They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas .They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them , They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another. 
  With or without permission, they straddle laws, jurisdictions and identities with ease. We need them to imagine the United States as a place where they can be productive for a while without committing themselves to staying forever. We need them to feel that home can be both here and there and that they can belong to two nations honorably. 
  Accommodating this new world of people in motion will require new attitudes on both sides of the immigration battle .Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes. Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system. 
  26 “Birds of passage” refers to those who____ 
  [A] immigrate across the Atlantic. 
  [B] leave their home countries for good. 
  [C] stay in a foregin temporaily. 
  [D] find permanent jobs overseas. 
  27 It is implied in paragraph 2 that the current immigration stystem in the US____ 
  [A] needs new immigrant categories. 
  [B] has loosened control over immigrants. 
  [C] should be adopted to meet challenges. 
  [D] has been fixeed via political means. 
  28 According to the author, today’s birds of passage want___ 
  [A] fiancial incentives. 
  [B] a global recognition. 
  [C] opportunities to get regular jobs. 
  [D] the freedom to stay and leave. 
  29 The author suggests that the birds of passage today should be treated __ 
  [A] as faithful partners. 
  [B] with economic favors. 
  [C] with legal tolerance. 
  [D] as mighty rivals. 
  30 which of the best title for the passage? 
  [A] come and go: big mistake. 
  [B] living and thriving : great risk. 
  [C] with or without : great risk. 
  [D] legal or illegal: big mistake. 
  26.【答案】C (stay in a foreign temporarily) 
  【解析】词汇题。根据题干关键词定位,定位到第一段最后一句。在這句中,They even had an affectionate nickname, “uccelli di passaggio,” birds of passage.,they 这个代词承前指代,指四分之一的意大利移民。有些人要再美国定居(permanent home),但是一些人只是在美国暂时居住,要回国(had no intention to stay).一定要注意理解这个倒装结构:Along with …. came those who……,那些没有要回国的是我们要强调的。通过这句我们能选择出C选项。这A项只是说一世纪前的横跨大西洋的移民们,没有说birds of passage来自于哪里。B项虽然有for good 但是与原文意思相反。原文是移民们会永远的回到意大利,而不是选项当中的离开自己的祖国。D项文中首段并未提及。 
  27.【答案】C (should be adopted to meet challenges) 
  【解析】推理题。题干要求在第二段。原文“We don’t need more categories”可以排除A选项。文章“Today, we are much more rigid about immigrants.”我们目前有更加严格的对待移民以及“ We need to look beyond strict definitions of legal and illegal.”我们需要超越这种合法和不合法的严格定义。就知道目前是很严格的。我们还没有选项中的“has loosened control over immigrants.”对移民的放松控制。B 项排除。文章也并没有说这个制度被政治方式所修复。政治确实出现在文章中,但是只是说“the long political paralysis”长期的政治麻痹与原文不符。故排除。“To start …We might then begin to solve our immigration challenges.”首先承认这些短暂移民的存在,然后解决移民的挑战。是C选项的同义替换。 
  28.【答案】D (the freedom to stay and leave) 
  【解析】细节题。根据关键词定位,可定位到第三段。 “They prefer to come and go as opportunity calls them .They can manage to have a job in one place and a family in another.”他们喜欢随着机会的来临,来去都自如。他们可以在一地工作,也可以再另外的地方成家。强调的是机会和来去自如。D项是这句的同义替换。A项是对原文的片面理解。“They are energetic participants in a global economy driven by the flow of work, money and ideas”不仅仅是来自金钱的刺激(financial incentives),还有有工作和各种理念。B在文中未提及。文中只是说道“global economy” ,没有提“global recognition”,C项中的regular jobs(一般工作)在文中未提及,也是对文意的曲解。 
  29.【答案】C (with legal tolerance) 
  【解析】推理题。根据题干,可定位到第五段。题干问到“根据作者,这些短暂移民者应该以何种方式被对待” “Looking beyond the culture war logic of right or wrong means opening up the middle ground and understanding that managing immigration today requires multiple paths and multiple outcomes. Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system”意思是 “我们应该超越移民合法性方面的文化之争,重现看待中间地带,充分意识到当今的移民管理体系需要各种途径,从而取得多样化的结果,来解决现今移民体系下用法律手段很难解决的问题”暗含了C项中tolerance也就是对“multiple paths and multiple outcomes”的改写。A、B和D项在文中未提及。 
  30.【答案】D (legal or illegal: big mistake) 
  【解析】主旨大意题。文章第二段第二句中提到“We divide newcomers into two categories: legal or illegal” “我们把新移民分为2类:合法和不合法移民.” 同时作者认为“We need to look beyond strick definitions of legal and illegal,” “我们不需要合法和不合法移民这样严格的定义”这说明这种分类是错误的。另外,文章最后一段最后一句“Including some that are not easy to accomplish legally in the existing system.”“包括在现行移民体系中不容易合法的实现一些事情”也反映了文章的中心。也就是说合法和不合法的分类是错误的。故选D。 A项说短暂移民们的移动是个错误。没有体现文章主旨。B和C项都说是risk(风险)跟文章无关。
Text 3 
  Scientists have found that although we are prone to snap overreactions, if we take a moment and think about how we are likely to react, we can reduce or even eliminate the negative effects of our quick, hard-wired responses. 
  Snap decisions can be important defense mechanisms; if we are judging whether someone is dangerous, our brains and bodies are hard-wired to react very quickly, within milliseconds. But we need more time to assess other factors. To accurately tell whether someone is sociable, studies show, we need at least a minute, preferably five. It takes a while to judge complex aspects of personality, like neuroticism or open-mindedness. 
  But snap decisions in reaction to rapid stimuli aren’t exclusive to the interpersonal realm. Psychologists at the University of Toronto found that viewing a fast-food logo for just a few milliseconds primes us to read 20 percent faster, even though reading has little to do with eating. We unconsciously associate fast food with speed and impatience and carry those impulses into whatever else we’re doing, Subjects exposed to fast-food flashes also tend to think a musical piece lasts too long. 
  Yet we can reverse such influences. If we know we will overreact to consumer products or housing options when we see a happy face (one reason good sales representatives and real estate agents are always smiling), we can take a moment before buying. If we know female job screeners are more likely to reject attractive female applicants, we can help screeners understand their biases-or hire outside screeners. 
  John Gottman, the marriage expert, explains that we quickly “thin slice” information reliably only after we ground such snap reactions in “thick sliced” long-term study. When Dr. Gottman really wants to assess whether a couple will stay together, he invites them to his island retreat for a muck longer evaluation; two days, not two seconds. 
  Our ability to mute our hard-wired reactions by pausing is what differentiates us from animals: doge can think about the future only intermittently or for a few minutes. But historically we have spent about 12 percent of our days contemplating the longer term. Although technology might change the way we react, it hasn’t changed our nature. We still have the imaginative capacity to rise above temptation and reverse the high-speed trend. 
  31. The time needed in making decisions may____. 
  [A] vary according to the urgency of the situation 
  [B] prove the complexity of our brain reaction 
  [C] depend on the importance of the assessment 
  [D] predetermine the accuracy of our judgment 
  32. Our reaction to a fast-food logo shows that snao decisions____. 
  [A] can be associative 
  [B] are not unconscious 
  [C] can be dangerous 
  [D] are not impulsive 
  33. Toreverse the negative influences of snap decisions,we should____. 
  [A] trust our first impression 
  [B] do as people usually do 
  [C] think before we act 
  [D] ask for expert advice 
  34. John Gottman says that reliable snap reaction are based on____. 
  [A] critical assessment 
  [B]‘‘thin sliced ’’study 
  [C] sensible explanation 
  [D] adequate information 
  35. The author’s attitude toward reversing the high-speed trend is____. 
  [A] tolerant 
  [B] uncertain 
  [C] optimistic 
  [D] doubtful 
  31.【答案】 [D] predetermine the accuracy of our judgment 
  【解析】细节题。题干问的是“作决定过程中所需的时间或许可以_____”。文章第一段提到“如果我们在做出反应之前花点儿时间来思考,那么将会减少甚至消除我们快速反应所带来的负面影响”,也就是说我们做决定所花的时间决定了我们判断的准确性。此外,此选项中的“accuracy” 为“accurately ”的同词异形,故此项为正确答案。选项A表达“依形势紧急性而定”错在无中生有﹔选项B“証明大脑反映的复杂性”,也是无中生有﹔选项C “取决于评估的重要性”,也与原文不符合,故排除。 
  32.【答案】[A] can be associative