友友英语网 首页 考研英语 查看内容

2016年考研英语一真题原文及答案解析完整版

2017-8-7 21:20| 发布者: admin| 查看: 276| 评论: 0

摘要: 2016年考研英语一真题原文及答案解析完整版

Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  In Cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, __1 __ those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. A young man can __2__a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to __3 __ the marriage negotiations, or the young man’s parents may make the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection.__4__ , a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. __5 __ a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying __6__ a good family.

  The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, __7__ by the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and __8__ prayers of blessing. Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, __9__cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride’s and groom’s wrists, and __10__ a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the __11__ . Newlyseds traditionally move in with the wife’s parents and may __12__ with them up to a year, __13__they can build a new house nearby.

  Divorce is legal and easy to __14__ ,but not common. Divoreced persons are __15__with some disapproval. Each spouse retains __16__ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__ up: The divorced male doesn’t have a waiting period before he can remarry __20__ the woman must wait ten months.

  1. [A] by way of [B] on behalf of [C] as well as [D] with regard to

  [标准答案] [C] as well as

  [考点分析] 逻辑关系

  [选项分析] 因为考查逻辑关系,所以需要我们先对填空前后的原文信息做定位分析:空格处身处大环境not only…but also之中,这是一个明显的并列关系,表示“不仅……而且……”,该空后面的those指代前文出现的“parents and friends”,显然“the young man”与“the young woman”为并列关系,表示“与他本人以及伴侣的父母朋友相关”,所以答案只能是[C]项as well as 也,又。[A]项by way of 通过,[D]项with regard to 关于,[B]项on behalf of 代表。

  2. [A] adapt to [B] provide for [C] compete with [D] decide on

  [标准答案] [D] decide on

  [考点分析] 上下文语义

  [选项分析] 根据该句的主语a young man与宾语a likely spouse的关系,答案只能是[D]项decide on“决定”,表示自己决定自己的配偶。[B]项provide for为……提供准备……,provide为及物动词,直接跟宾语,不需要加介词;[C]项compete with“与……竞争”,[A]项adapt to“适用”。

  3. [A] close [B] remew [C] arrange [D] postpone

  [标准答案] [C] arrange

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析] 该句意思为:他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母_____婚姻谈判。四个选项中,[A]项close 关闭;[B]项renew 更新,恢复;[D]项postpone 推迟;这三项语义不正确,只有[C]项arrange“安排”符合语境。

  4. [A] Above all [B] In theory [C] In time [D] For example

  [标准答案] [B] In theory

  [考点分析] 上下文语义

  [选项分析] 逻辑判断题主要是看前后两句的含义,前面说“他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母安排婚姻谈判,或者完全由父母选择对象,不给孩子选择的机会。”空格后面说“女方可以否决她父母所选择的对象。”这两句之间显然是相反的关系,且有一个may,更证明[B]项In theory“理论上说”的正确性,而其他选项[A]项Above all最重要的是,[C]项In time 准时,[D]项For example举例,均不符合题意。

  5. [A] Although [B] Lest [C] After [D] Unless

  [标准答案] [C] After

  [考点分析] 上下文语义

  [选项分析] 根据下文“______a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other…”可知,只有对象选择好后,父母才会去调查对方,显然表达的是时间先后顺序,所以只有after才对。其他选项[A]项Although 尽管, [B]项Lest 以免,唯恐,[D]Unless 除非,否则都不符合题意。

  6. [A] into [B] within [C] from [D] through

  [标准答案] [A] into

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及介词辨析

  [选项分析] 这里主要是看marry与相关介词的固定搭配及句意理解。这里marry into就是指“通过婚姻得到[成为]……的一员”,而其他选项均没有这层含义。

  7. [A] since [B] or [C] but [D] so

  [标准答案] [C] but

  [考点分析] 逻辑关系

  [选项分析] 根据上文“以前婚礼会持续三天”,出处句子意为“到了20世纪80年代,婚礼只持续一天半”,显然与前文发生转变,为对比关系,因此选择[C]项but 但是。

  8. [A] copy [B] test [C] recite [D] create

  [标准答案] [C] recite

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析] 空格处需要填一个动词,和后面的prayers of blessing所搭配,[C]项recite 有“吟诵、朗诵”的意思,与所给短语搭配最为合理,译为“吟诵祝福的祈祷文”。

  9. [A] folding [B] piling [C] wrapping [D] tying

  [标准答案] [D] tying

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析] 本题需要根据上下文语义分析,空格处需要搭配后文“棉线”,纵观四个选项[A]项 折叠,[B]项 堆积,[C]项 包裹,[D]项 系上,根据后文的“around the bride’s and groom’s wrists 在新郎和新娘的腰间”,只有[D]项“将在圣水中浸过的棉线系在新郎和新娘的腰间”符合句意。

  10. [A] passing [B] lighting [C] hiding [D] serving

  [标准答案] [A] passing

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析] 原文空格需要填写一个动词与后文“around a circle”来搭配,译为“将蜡烛传一圈”,故[A]项“传递”为正确选项。[B]项 点亮,[C]项 隐藏,[D]项 服务。

 11. [A] meeting [B] collection [C] association [D] union

  [标准答案] [D] union

  [考点分析] 名词辨析

  [选项分析] 本句语义为“将蜡烛绕着幸福完婚和受人尊敬的夫妻传递一圈来祝福 ”,[D]项 结合,引申为“婚姻”之意;根据语境,[D]项正确。

  12. [A] grow [B] part [C] deal [D] live

  [标准答案] [D] live

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析] 本题比较简单。根据语义“根据传统,新婚夫妇要搬到妻子父母家,与父母____一年”,[D]项“生活”为最佳答案。[C]项 交易,[B]项 分开,[A]项 成长。

  13. [A] whereas [B] until [C] if [D] for

  [标准答案] [B] until

  [考点分析] 时间逻辑关系

  [选项分析] 本句意为“_____他们在附近建造一栋新房子”,[A]项 然而,[B]项 直到,[D]项因为,[C]项 如果,结合前文“新婚夫妇根据传统要和女方家人生活一年”,前后存在一定的时间关系,[B]项“直到”最符合原文语境,搭配最为合理。

  14. [A] avoid [B] follow [C] challenge [D] obtain

  [标准答案] [D] obtain

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析] Divorce is legal and relatively easy to __14__, but not common. 该句句意为“离婚是合法的,且相对容易____。”[A]项avoid避免,[B]项follow跟随,[C]项challenge挑战,质疑,[D]项obtain获得,实现。根据关键词“legal”可知这里表达的是正面的意思,再根据句意选择[D]项。

  15. [A] isolated [B] persuaded [C] viewed [D] exposed

  [标准答案] [C] viewed

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析] Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval. 离婚的人 一些不认可。本段第一句提到“离婚是合法的且相对容易得到批准,但是不常见。”这句其实是在说明离婚并不常见的原因,[A]项isolated孤立,[B]项persuaded劝说,[C]项viewed看待,[D]项exposed接触,受到……的影响,[C]项最符合句意。

  16. [A] whereever [B] whatever [C] whenever [D] however

  [标准答案] [B] whatever

  [考点分析] 关系代词辨析

  [选项分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage. 17小题四个选项都是动词,所以该句意思为:夫妇双方保有财产,这个财产是他或她进婚姻的。结合[A]项 whereever“无论何地;任何(地方)=any place where(定从)”;[B]项 whatever“无论什么;任何(东西)=anything that/any+N that”;[C]项 whenever无论何时;任何时间=any time when;[D]项 however无论如何;无论多么。根据语义,这里应该不是让步的关系,而且填的这个词还要能修饰property。因此,选择[B]项,等于retains any property that he or she……。

  17. [A] changed [B] brought [C] shaped [D] pushed

  [标准答案] [B] brought

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词义辨析

  [选项分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage,结合[A]项 changed“改变”,[B]项 brought “带来”,[C]项 shaped“形成”,[D]项 pushed“推,逼迫”。结合语境只有[B]项符合句意,意为“把财产带入婚姻”。

  18. [A] invested [B] divided [C] donated [D] withdrawn

  [标准答案] [B] divided

  [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词义辨析

  [选项分析] ...and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. 结合[A]项invested投资;[B]项divided分配;分开;[C]项donated 捐赠;[D]项withdrawn撤出,提取。根据语义应该是共同财产被(夫妻双方)平分,因此选择[B]项。

  19. [A] warms [B] clears [C] shows [D] breaks

  [标准答案] [C] shows

  [考点分析] 动词固定搭配

  [选项分析] Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up. 该句语义为离过婚的人或许会再婚,但是性别偏见 。[A]项warm up加热,热身;[B]项clear up(天气)变晴,收拾,消除;[C]项show up显现;[D]项break up分裂,分开;根据句意,选择[C]项。

  20. [A] while [B] so that [C] once [D] in that

  [标准答案] [A] while

  [选项分析] 上下文语义

  [考点分析] 本句句意为:离婚的男性再婚不需要等待期,女性必须等十个月。显然前后两句存在转折关系,只有[A]项while“然而”能够表达这个意思。

 Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways.

  The parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.

  Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death - as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.

  The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.

  The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep — and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.

  The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.

  In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states: “We are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people.’ The charter’s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen Fashion Week, which is run by the Danish Fashion Institute. But in general it relies on a name-and-shame method of compliance.

  Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.

  21. According to the first paragraph, what would happen in France?

  [A] Physical beauty would be redefined.

  [B] New runways would be constructed.

  [C] Websites about dieting would thrive.

  [D] The fashion industry would decline.

  【答案】 [A] Physical beauty would be redefined

  【解析】 推断题。根据France定位到文章前两段,第一段讲法国决定时装业失去了定义(define)形体美(physical beauty)的绝对权力。法国的立法者通过了一项法律,雇用超瘦的模特属于犯罪,议会也禁止网站通过推崇极端节食“鼓动过度瘦弱”。第二段第二句提到“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. 他们建议美丽不应该以伤害身体健康为代价的外表来界定。”由此可知,法国通过立法手段来改变法国时装业模特超瘦的现状,即[A]项的“形体美将会被重新定义”,是对原文内容的合理推断。[B]项“将会建造新的舞台”,[C]项“有关节食的网站将会兴起”,[D]项“时装业将会衰退”,均不能从文中推测出来,属于“无中生有”。

  22. The phrase “impinging on” (Line 2, Para 2) is closest in meaning to____

  [A] heightening the value of.

  [B] indicating the state of.

  [C] losing faith in.

  [D] doing harm to.

  【答案】 [D] doing harm to

  【解析】猜词题。定位到第二段第二句“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. 他们建议美丽不应该以 身体健康为代价的外表来界定。”impinging on后面的宾语为“health”,即对健康的某种影响。根据第二段第三句“对超瘦模特的禁令似乎不仅仅是在防止模特挨饿致死——正如曾有人这么做过的”,可见法国目前的对美丽的定义导致了有人为了保持身材,挨饿致死,因此推测出这一短语在这里的意思为“侵犯,伤害”,[D]项“对……有害”正确。[A]项“增强了……的价值”,[B]项“反映了……的状态”,[C]项“对……失去信心”均不符合句意。

  23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry?

  [A] The French measures have already failed.

  [B] New standards are being set in Denmark.

  [C] Model are no longer under peer pressure.

  [D] Its inherent problems are getting worse.

  【答案】 [B] New Standards are being set in Denmark

  【解析】细节题。根据第五段第二句话“In Denmark,...it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion... 在丹麦,它正尝试为模特设定自愿的标准……”,可知[B]项“在丹麦新的标准正在被设定”是对原文的同义替换。[A]项“法国的措施失败了”;[C]项“不再有来自同行执法的压力”,文章第五段第二句后半句提到“images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement”,属于“正反混淆”;[D]项“它固有的问题变得更严重了”,文中第五段只提及时装业有固有的问题,并未提及“变得更严重”,属于“无中生有”。

  24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for ____

  [A] setting a high age threshold for models.

  [B] caring too much about models’ character.

  [C] showing little concern for health factors.

  [D] pursuing perfect physical conditions.

  【答案】 [C] showing little concern for health factors

  【解析】推断题。题设为“一个设计师很可能因为什么原因被CFW拒绝”,根据关键词CFW可回到文中定位至倒数第二段,该段提到丹麦的时尚界就有关模特的年龄、健康及其他特性的内容达成一致意见,且一项新法案也明确规定,他们已经意识到时尚界对于人们尤其是年轻人的身体健康所带来的影响,并且应该对此承担责任,这一法规的执行方式就是拒绝一些设计师和模特经纪机构参加哥本哈根时装周(CFW)。因此[C]项的“不关心健康因素”符合题意,为正确答案。[D]项“追求完美的身体状况”,[B]项的“过多关注模特的性格”,[A]项“设定了一个模特高龄门槛”,均不符合题意。

  25. Which of the following may be the best title of the text?

  [A] The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry

  [B] Just Another Round of Struggle for Beauty

  [C] A Dilemma for the Starving Models in France

  [D] A Challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals

  【答案】 [D] A challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals

  【解析】主旨题。本文从首段就开始阐述法国通过立法禁止雇用超瘦的模特,时装业已经失去了定义女性身体之美的绝对权力,且议会也禁止网站通过宣传过度节食来强调过度消瘦。第二段继续说明美丽不能只看外表,更不能以牺牲健康为代价,时装业应该为传递给女性的不良信息负责。第三段说明女性不该让他人来评判自己的美丽。第四段讲法国的措施更多的是依靠严厉的惩罚。最后三段提到了丹麦与法国截然不同的措施。纵观全文,文章主要在讲各个国家对解决目前模特超瘦的现状的措施,因此[D]项的“对时装业身体典范的挑战”是对原文的“高度概括”。

 Text 2

  For the first time in history, more people live in towns than in the county. In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate “the countryside” alongside the royal firmly, Shakespeare and the National Health Service (NHS) as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.

  A century ago Octavia Hill launched the National Trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save “the beauty of natural places for everyone forever.” It was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience “a refreshing air.” Hill’s pressure later led to the creation of national parks and green belts. They don’t make countryside any more, and every year concrete consumes more of it. It needs constant guardianship.

  At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The conservatives’ planning reform explicitly gives rural development priori over conservation, even authorizing “off-plan” building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The Liberal Democrats are silent. Only Ukip, sensing its chance, has sided with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. Its Campaign to Protect Rural England struck terror into many local Conservative parties.

  The sensible place to build new houses, factories and offices is where people are.in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents Stirling Ackroyd recently identified enough sites for half a million houses in the London area alone, no intrusion on green belt. What is true of London is even truer of the provinces.

  The idea that “housing crisis” equals “concreted meadows” is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more house but, as always, where to put them. Under lobby pressure, George Osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town shopping sites against. high streets. This is not a free market but a biased one. Rural towns and villages have growl and will always grow. They do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. We do not ruin urban conservation areas. Why ruin rural ones?

  Development should be planned .not let rip. After the Netherlands, Britain is Europe’s most crowded country. Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. there is no doubt of the alternative - the corrupted landscapes of southern Portugal Spain or Ireland avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite left and right of the political spectrum.

  26. Britain’s public sentiment about the countryside

  [A] didn’t start till the Shakespearean age.

  [B] has brought much benefit to the NHS.

  [C] is fully backed by the royal family.

  [D] is not well reflected in politics.

  【答案】 [D] is not well reflected in politics

  【解析】细节题。根据题干回到原文精确定位到首段最后一句:“然而民意调查显示英国人把乡村与皇室家族、莎士比亚和国家医疗服务体系一起视为使他们为自己国家感到最自豪的事物,这拥有有限的政治支持”,该句中的polls“民意调查“对应题干中的public sentiment,“this has limited political support”对应[D]项“is not well reflected in politics”,意为“在政治上没有得到很好的反响”,是对原文的同义替换。[B]项“给国家医疗服务体系带了了很多益处”,[A]项“直到莎士比亚时期才开始”,[C]项“得到了皇室家族的全力支持”,文章均未提及,属于“无中生有”。

  27. According to Paragraph 2, the achievements of the National Trust are now being

  [A] gradually destroyed.

  [B] effectively reinforced..

  [C] properly protected.

  [D] largely overshadowed.

  【答案】 [D] largely overshadowed

  【解析】细节题。根据题干中的the National Trust定位到第二段首句。第二段首句提到这一项目的目的是为每个人永久保存自然地区的美丽。再根据第二段的第三句“Hill的项目创造出国家公园和绿地。他们不再制造乡村了,而且每年钢筋混凝土消耗的乡村越来越多。乡村需要持久的保护”。可知当时的项目取得的成就已经不再发挥影响,[D]项“被大大夺去了光辉(即失去了影响力)”为正确选项。[A]项“被渐渐破坏”,[B]项“被有效地加强了”,[C]项“被合理地保护”,均不符合题意。

  28. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3?

  [A] Labour is under attack for opposing development

  [B] The Conservatives may abandon “off-plan” building.

  [C] The Liberal Democrats are losing political influence.

  [D] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation.

  【答案】 [D] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation

  【解析】推断题。根据题干定位到第三段。第二段提到乡村亟待保护,第三段首句提到在接下来的选举中似乎没有一个大的政党支持这种(公众)情绪。第六七句提到:只有Ukip意识到其机会,支持那些恳求在使用绿地上有更周全的方法的人,它发起的“保护英国乡村”的运动使许多当地的保守党感到恐惧。可见Ukip的做法符合大众情绪,会因此获益。[A]项的“Ukip可能因支持保护乡村而获益”是对原文的同义替换。

  29. The author holds that George Osborne’s preference

  [A] reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas.

  [B] shows his disregard for the character of rural areas.

  [C] stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis.

  [D] highlights his firm stand i against lobby Pressure.

  【答案】[B] shows his disregard for the character of rural areas

  【解析】 细节题。根据关键词George Osborne定位至第五段,第五段第二句提到Osborne支持乡村新建住宅反对城市改造和重建,支持郊区购物场所反对城市商业街。由此可知Osborne的是支持城市保护,反对乡村保护。接下来几句作者表达了自己的观点:这不是一个自由的市场而是一个有偏见的市场。接着提到:乡村的小镇和农村已经得到发展并将继续发展,它们在建筑坚持界线和尊重它们的特点方面做的非常好,我们没有破坏城市受保护的区域,为什么要破坏乡村的呢?可见Osborne的观点只强调城市,忽视了乡村,[B]项“表明他对乡村区域特色的忽视”符合文意,为正确选项。[A]项“揭示出对城市区域的强烈偏见”,Osborne重视城市反对乡村,与文意相悖;[C]项“强调了缓解住房压力的必要性”,[D]项“突出了他反对游说团压力的坚定立场”,文中并未提及,属于“无中生有”。

  30. In the last paragraph, the author shows his appreciation of

  [A] the size of population in Britain.

  [B] the enviable urban lifestyle in Britain.

  [C] the town-and-country planning in Britain.

  [D]the political life in today’s Britain.

  【答案】 [C] the town-and-country planning in Britain

  【解析】 细节题。根据题干定位到最后一段第二句:“Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living.”,[C]项的“the town-and-country planning in Britain”是对原文的同义替换,为正确选项。[A]项“英国人口的规模”,[B]项“英国令人羡慕的都市生活方式”,[D]项“当今英国的政治生活”,均不符合题意。

Text 3

  “There is one and only one social responsibility of businesses,” wrote Milton Friedman, a Nobel prize-winning economist, “That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.” But even if you accept Firedman’s premise and regard corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders’ money, things may not be absolutely clear-cut. New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies-at least when they are prosecuted for corruption.

  The largest firms in America and Britain together spend more than $ 15 billion a year on CSR, according to an estimate by EPG, a consulting firm. This could add value to their businesses in three ways. First, consumers may take CSR spending as a “signal” that a company’s products are of high quality. Second, customers may be willing to buy a company’s products as an indirect way to donate to the good causes it helps. And third, through a more diffuse “halo effect,” whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others.

  Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. A recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under America’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company’s products as part of their investigations, they could be influenced only by the halo effect.

  The study found that, among prosecuted firms, those with the most comprehensive CSR programmes tended to get more lenient penalties. Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firms’ political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.

  In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seem to be influenced by a company’s record in CSR. “We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern, such as child labour or increasing corpora giving by about 20% results in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for briding foreign officials,” says one researcher.

  Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question of how much businesses ought to spend on CSR. Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect rather than the other possible benefits, when they decide their do-gooding policies. But at least they have demonstrated that when companies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them a less costly punishment.

  31. The author views Milton Friedman’s statement about CSR with

  [A] tolerance

  [B] skepticism

  [C] uncertainty

  [D] approval

  【答案】[B]

  【解析】观点态度题。题干问的是作者对有关CSR方面Milton Friedman的说法是什么态度。根据信号词Milton Friedman这个人定位到首段。注意题干问的是作者的看法,因此定位到第二句but转折处。But后句子的主干为:things may not be absolutely clear-cut,可见作者对Milton Friedman所说的内容并不完全赞同,故选择答案[B]项怀疑。[A]项容忍,[C]项不确定,[D]项赞同,这三项均不是作者的态度,故排除。

  32. According to Paragraph 2, CSR helps a company by

  [A] winning trust from consumers.

  [B] guarding it against malpractices.

  [C] protecting it from being defamed.

  [D] raising the quality of its products.

  【答案】[A]

  【解析】细节题。根据题干中的出处提示“Paragraph 2”定位到第二段第二句:This could add value to their businesses in three ways. This指的是CSR,根据接下来讲到的三点:第一点是,消费者认为这样的公司产品质量比较高;第二点是,顾客更愿意购买这样公司的产品;第三点是,通过一个更为广泛的“晕轮效应”,消费者会更多地考虑这样的公司的产品。可知,有CSR支出的公司会吸引更多的消费者,[A]项“赢得消费者的信任”,是对整个三点的总结,故为正确答案。[B]项 防止公司里的玩忽职守,[C]项 保护公司免受毁谤,[D]项 提升公司产品的质量,均在原文中未提及,故排除。

  33. The expression “more lenient’ (Line 2, Para. 4) is closest in meaning to

  [A] more effective

  [B] less controversial

  [C] less severe

  [D] more lasting

  【答案】[C]

  【解析】猜词题。根据题干中的出处提示“line 2, para. 4”及信号词“more lenient”定位到原文中的第四段第一句:The study found that...penalties。明显此句中more lenient 修饰 penalties(惩罚) ,要想推测出more lenient的含义,需要知道被起诉的公司中,那些有着全面的CSR项目的公司和penalties 之间的联系。本项在第五段的最后一句最容易被看出来,第五段最后一句提到那些在CSR有较大投资的公司,当被起诉有贿赂行为时,所受到的罚金要比通常的罚金低40%左右,可知这样的公司会受到较轻的惩罚,故more lenient是较轻,即较不严重的意思,故选[C]项。[A]项 更有效的,[B]项 较少有争议的,[D]项 更持久的,这三项均不


鲜花

握手

雷人

路过

鸡蛋
返回顶部
用手机微信扫一扫