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2018-03-02 英语热词:中国日报 卢敏微博

2018-3-2 12:52| 发布者: admin| 查看: 583| 评论: 0

摘要: 中国日报 2月,恰逢新春佳节巧遇平昌冬奥会,很多热词自然跟这两年大事有关,比如,智能春联、奥林匹克休战墙、妈妈装的后备箱、中国队冬奥首金,等等。 2月新闻热词汇总 婚姻消费补贴 subsidy for wedding expendi ...

中国日报

2月,恰逢新春佳节巧遇平昌冬奥会,很多热词自然跟这两年大事有关,比如,智能春联、奥林匹克休战墙、妈妈装的后备箱、中国队冬奥首金,等等。

 

2月新闻热词汇总

婚姻消费补贴 subsidy for wedding expenditure

 

North China's Shanxi province have earmarked an estimated 95 million yuan ($15 million) in cash incentives for newly married couples in an effort to help them start families of their own.

山西省预计将拨款9500万元对新婚夫妇进行现金补贴,帮助他们建立家庭。

 

婚姻消费补贴专项基金(subsidy for wedding expenditure),简称婚补基金,是经民政部直管的中国社会工作联合会批准,于去年69日为促进婚姻家庭建设而成立的公益基金,这是我国首个以新婚人群(newly married couples)为主要服务对象的公益基金。

 

婚补基金面向领取结婚证一年之内的新人,补贴范围包括婚纱摄影(wedding photos)、婚宴酒店(wedding receptions)、婚礼庆典(wedding ceremony)、婚房装修(home decorations)、蜜月旅行(honeymoon travel)、家用电器(household appliances)等,基本涵盖了新婚消费的各个环节。补贴标准为黄金3 /克,汽车消费500/辆,婚纱摄影等其他消费项目按平均消费额的5%予以补贴。

 

中英“黄金时代”增强版 enhanced version of the "Golden Era" bilateral ties

 

President Xi Jinping met with visiting British Prime Minister Theresa May Thursday, calling on both countries to forge an enhanced version of the "Golden Era" bilateral ties.

国家主席习近平1日会见来华访问的英国首相特雷莎?梅,并提出中英双方应共同打造黄金时代增强版。

 

习近平指出,2015年我对英国进行了成功访问,双方共同揭开了中英关系黄金序章(Golden Prologue。中方愿同英方一道,推动中英关系在新时代健康稳定发展(China is willing to work with Britain to promote the healthy and steady development of bilateral ties in a new era),为两国人民带来更多福祉,为世界繁荣稳定提供更多助力。

 

习近平强调,当前,世界多极化(a multipolar world)、经济全球化(economic globalization)、社会信息化(wide IT application)、文化多样化(cultural diversity)深入发展,人类命运休戚与共,和平、发展、合作、共赢(peace, development and win-win cooperation)已经成为时代主流。中英双方应顺应时代潮流,结合两国各自发展阶段和合作需求,赋予中英关系新的时代内涵,共同打造黄金时代增强版。

 

一要提升中英关系“黄金时代”战略性(upgrade the strategic level of the "Golden Era" bilateral ties),从战略高度和全局角度看待和规划双边关系未来发展。继续办好战略、财金、人文等高层对话机制(continue to host high-level dialogue in areas of strategy, finance and people-to-people exchanges),不断夯实黄金时代的政治基础。

 

二要增强中英关系“黄金时代”务实性(energize practical cooperation in the "Golden Era" bilateral ties),推动两国经贸合作再上新台阶。中英双方可以在一带一路框架内开展更大范围、更高水平、更深层次的互利合作(China and Britain can carry out broader and more in-depth cooperation of higher standard within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative)。

 

三要拓展中英关系“黄金时代”全球性(enhance globalization of the "Golden Era" bilateral ties),深化在联合国、二十国集团、世界贸易组织等多边机构内交流合作,推动解决气候变化等全球性挑战,共同促进世界和平与稳定。

 

四要促进中英关系“黄金时代”包容性(promote inclusiveness of the "Golden Era" bilateral ties),发扬两国文明兼收并蓄、博采众长的传统理念,加强人文交流,增进两国交往和友谊,夯实两国关系民意基础,为促进东西方文明交流互鉴、不同文明国家和合共生树立典范(the two countries should reinforce people-to-people and cultural exchanges to set an example of realizing harmony and coexistence between eastern and western countries)。

 

乡村振兴战略 the strategy of rural vitalization

 

China on Sunday released a package of policies under the "No 1 central document" of the year, charting the roadmap for rural vitalization.

我国24日发布中央一号文件,公布一系列政策,部署乡村振兴战略。

 

文件指出,实施乡村振兴战略(the strategy of rural vitalization),是解决人民日益增长的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间矛盾(to address the contradiction between unbalanced and inadequate development and the people’s ever-growing needs for a better life)的必然要求,是实现两个一百年奋斗目标(to realize the Two Centenary Goals)的必然要求,是实现全体人民共同富裕(to achieve prosperity for all)的必然要求。

 

文件指出,乡村振兴,产业兴旺(thriving businesses)是重点;生态宜居(pleasant living environment)是关键;乡风文明(social etiquette and civility)是保障;治理有效(effective governance)是基础;生活富裕(prosperity)是根本;摆脱贫困(out of poverty)是前提。

 

文件确定了实施乡村振兴战略的目标任务:到2020年,乡村振兴取得重要进展,制度框架和政策体系基本形成( the strategy should have established an institutional framework and policy system);到2035年,乡村振兴取得决定性进展,农业农村现代化基本实现("decisive" progress shall be made, with basic modernization of agriculture and rural areas);到2050年,乡村全面振兴,农业强、农村美、农民富全面实现(rural areas should have strong agriculture, a beautiful countryside and well-off farmers)。

 

蓝天保卫战三年作战计划 three-year plan on defending the blue sky

 

The Chinese government has announced plans to roll out a three-year plan to ensure greater achievements in air pollution control.

我国政府宣布推出三年计划,以确保在污染防治方面取得更大成绩。

 

除制定实施打赢蓝天保卫战三年作战计划(three-year plan on defending the blue sky)外,今年还要出台京津冀及周边地区(the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas)、长三角(the Yangtze River Delta)、汾渭平原(the Fenhe and Weihe plain)等重点区域大气污染防治实施方案。

 

环保部部长李干杰表示,到2020年,全国未达标城市PM2.5平均浓度要比2015年降低18%,地级及以上城市优良天数比例达到80%to increase the number of good air quality days in the prefecture-level cities and above to 80 percent by 2020)。这也是十三五规划提出的约束性指标。

 

在产业、能源、运输三大结构调整方面,今年我国将稳步推进北方地区清洁取暖(promoting the use of clean energy in winter heating in north China),加快淘汰燃煤小锅炉(speeding up elimination of small coal-fired boilers),并开展煤气发生炉专项整治行动。推动减少公路运输(lowering percentage of road transport)、提高铁路货运比例(increasing percentage of rail freight),整治柴油货车超标排放(cracking down on excessive emission of diesel-powered trucks)。继续推进燃煤电厂超低排放改造,启动钢铁行业超低排放改造,加强重点行业挥发性有机物治理(strengthening management of VOC in key industries),开展散乱污企业及集群全面排查整治。

 

奥林匹克休战墙 Olympic Truce Mural

 

The inauguration of the Olympic Truce Mural took place on Feb 5 at the PyeongChang Olympic Village. According to the organizers of the PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Winter Games, the mural is "a reflection of a bridge as it signifies PyeongChang's vision to use the Olympic and Paralympic Games to open bridges between nations and help achieve a better world through sports."

“奥林匹克休战墙”25日在平昌奥运村揭幕。平昌冬奥组委表示,休战墙是一座桥的形状,这代表了平昌用奥运会和残奥会在各国之间搭建桥梁、通过体育让世界变得更加美好的愿望。

 

此次休战墙的主题为“搭建桥梁(Building Bridges,墙高约3米、宽约7米,每面墙的中间部分都向下弯曲倒下,犹如拱桥的形状,体现打破壁垒,搭建和平桥梁的寓意。

 

Olympic Truce就是奥林匹克休战truce指的是a state of peace agreed to between opponents 或者a cessation of all hostilities;那么宣布休战就是declaration of truce,与其意思相近的还有ceasefire,这两个词都表示暂时停火armistice则表示参战双方达成正式的停战协议,寻找其他解决冲突的方法。

 

“奥林匹克休战墙”的英文为Olympic Truce Mural,这里之所以用mural,而不是wall,是因为这面墙并不是空白的墙,而是绘有代表奥林匹克停战精神艺术图案的墙,mural这个词指的就是绘在墙面或者天花板等固定物体表面的艺术作品。

 

智能春联 Smart Spring Festival Couplets

 

Using AI technology, the Smart Spring Festival Couplets app created by CCTV and Baidu can write a pair of customized couplets within seconds according to the key words entered by users.

央视和百度联合推出的“智能春联”利用人工智能技术,能够根据用户输入的关键词在几秒钟之内写出一副个性化的春联。

 

用户还能为这幅春联加上自己或亲友的名字,为好友送上定制化的祝福(customized festival wishes)。

 

除了传统的春联,“智能春联”还能根据年轻人喜欢的星座(horoscope)、热词(buzzword)等,创作出个性化春联。

 

反导拦截试验 anti-missile interception test

 

The Ministry of National Defense announced on Tuesday that China has successfully tested a land-based mid-course anti-missile intercept technology within its territory on Monday, and the test achieved its preset goal.

国防部6日宣布,5日,我国在境内进行了一次陆基中段反导拦截技术试验,试验达到了预期目标。

 

反导拦截(anti-missile interception)技术按发射地分为陆基(land-based)、海基(sea-based)和天基(space-based),分别指反导系统在陆地、海上和天空发射。按照拦截时机不同可分为三大类,即助推段(boost phase)、中段(mid-course)和末端(terminal)。中段是弹道导弹飞行高度最高的一段,远程弹道导弹(ballistic missile)的中段是在大气层以外飞行。在中段进行拦截,可以避免敌方导弹飞临我方本土,相对于"爱国者3"等末端反导系统(anti-missile system),安全系数更高。但中段拦截因为目标距离远,也要求反导系统的雷达拥有更远的探测距离(detection range)、拦截弹拥有更快的速度和加速度,技术难度更高。

 

中段导弹拦截被认为是目前最为可行的反导弹方案(be regarded as the most feasible anti-missile plan at present)。陆基中段导弹防御系统(ground-based midcourse missile defense system)的系统组成庞杂、技术难度极高,此前,世界上只有美国一国进行过这种研究试验,中国是第二个进行陆基中段反导拦截试验(land-based mid-course anti-missile interception test)的国家。国防部称,这一试验是防御性的(the test is defensive in nature),不针对任何国家。

 

冬奥会 Winter Olympic Games

 

The 23rd Winter Olympic Games will officially kick off Friday in Pyeongchang, South Korea. The opening ceremony, titled "Peace in Motion," begins at 8 pm local time.

23届冬季奥林匹克运动会将于9日在韩国平昌正式开幕。开幕式主题是"为了和平的行动",将于当地时间晚8点开始。

 

平昌冬奥会(the Pyeongchang Winter Olympic Games)是史上规模最大的冬奥会(the largest Winter Games in history),有来自92个国家和地区的2920名运动员(2,920 athletes from 92 countries and regions)参加这场为期17天的冰雪盛会,比赛共分7大项(sports)15个分项(discipines)以及102个小项(events),设有13座比赛场馆和3座训练场馆。平昌冬奥会将在4个项目上新增小项,分别是冰壶混合双人赛(mixed doubles in curling)、速度滑冰集体出发(speed skating mass start)、高山滑雪团体赛(Alpine skiing team event),以及单板滑雪大跳台(snowboard big air)

 

为了增强冬季运动项目实力(expand its winter sports prowess)、备战2022年在本国举办的冬奥会,中国派出了其史上最大的代表团出征平昌冬奥会,与世界高手一决高下(vie with the world's best)。中国体育代表团共186人,其中包括82名运动员,他们将角逐5个大项中的55个小项。在自由式滑雪U型场地(freestyle skiing half-pipe)、雪车(bobsled)和单板平行大回转(parallel giant slalom in snowboarding)10个小项中,我国运动员首次获得冬奥会参赛资格。

 

生态保护红线 red lines for ecological protection

 

China has designated 610,000 square kilometers of land as key ecological zones with a fragile environmental status. The demarcated area covers 15 provincial regions, including Beijing, and is intended to strengthen ecological protection, the Ministry of Environmental Protection announced on Monday.

环保部12日宣布,我国已将北京市等15个省(市)约61万平方公里的土地划定为生态功能极重要和生态环境极敏感脆弱地区,以加强生态保护。

 

生态保护红线(red lines for ecological protection)是指在自然生态服务功能(ecosystem services)、环境质量安全(environmental quality and safety)、自然资源利用(use of natural resources)等方面,需要实行严格保护的空间边界与管理限值(boundaries and limits),以维护国家和区域生态安全及经济社会可持续发展,保障人民群众健康。

 

此次划定的生态保护区域涵盖了国家级和省级自然保护区(nature reserves of national and provincial levels)、风景名胜区(scenic areas)、森林公园(forest parks)、地质公园(geological parks)、湿地公园(wetland parks)等各类保护地,基本实现了应划尽划

 

从不同区域看,京津冀区域生态保护红线包括水源涵养(water conservation)、生物多样性维护(maintenance of biodiversity)、水土保持(conservation of water and soil)、防风固沙(windbreak and sand fixing)、水土流失控制(control of soil erosion)、土地沙化控制(control of land desertification)、海岸生态稳定(ecological stability in coastal areas)等7大类37个片区,构成了以燕山生态屏障、太行山生态屏障、坝上高原防风固沙带、沿海生态防护带为主体的两屏两带生态保护红线空间分布格局。

 

长江经济带生态保护红线包括水源涵养、生物多样性维护、水土保持、水土流失控制、石漠化控制(rocky desertification control)和海岸生态稳定等6大类144个片区,构成了以三区十二带为主的生态保护红线空间格局。宁夏回族自治区生态保护红线包括水源涵养、生物多样性维护、水土保持、防风固沙、水土流失控制等5大类9个片区,构成了以三屏一带五区为主的生态保护红线空间格局。

 

开除党籍、开除公职 be dismissed from public office and expelled from the Party

 

Lu Wei, the former head of China's internet watchdog, has been dismissed from public office and expelled from the Party for multiple offenses, including taking bribes, the top anti-graft agency said.

因受贿等多项违纪问题,中纪委决定给予中央网信办原主任鲁炜开除党籍、开除公职处分。

 

这里的“开除党籍、开除公职(be dismissed from public office and expelled from the Party就是双开

 

对于鲁炜的严重违纪问题,新华社是这样翻译的:

 

严重违反政治纪律和政治规矩

severely violate Party discipline

 

阳奉阴违、欺骗中央

while appearing obedient, he had covertly refused to implement Party decisions

 

目无规矩、肆意妄为,妄议中央

acted wantonly and issued groundless criticisms of Party policies

 

干扰中央巡视

obstructed the central authority's discipline inspections

 

公器私用,不择手段为个人造势

abused his power and public resources for personal purposes, and unscrupulously sought personal influence

 

匿名诬告他人,拉帮结派、搞“小圈子”

framed others anonymously and formed factions and cliques

 

严重违反中央八项规定精神和群众纪律

violated the Party's eight-point frugality code and mass line spirit

 

频繁出入私人会所,大搞特权,作风粗暴、专横跋扈

frequented luxurious venues, waywardly sought and used privileges, and acted peremptorily and arbitrarily

 

组织谈话函询时不如实说明问题

failed to cooperate with investigators

 

以权谋私,收钱敛财

used his power for personal gains

 

对中央关于网信工作的战略部署搞选择性执行

selective in implementing the CPC Central Committee's cyberspace management strategy

 

以权谋色、毫无廉耻

shamelessly traded power for sex

 

利用职务上的便利为他人谋取利益并收受巨额财物涉嫌受贿犯罪

took advantage of his position to seek profits for others and received a huge amount of property, leading to suspicions he had accepted bribes

 

理想信念缺失,毫无党性原则,对党中央极端不忠诚

lost his Communist faith and is extremely disloyal

 

“四个意识”个个皆无,“六大纪律”项项违反

completely betrayed each and every important political requirement and major discipline for Party members

 

典型的“两面人”

a typical example of duplicity

 

党的十八大后不收敛、不知止,问题严重集中,群众反映强烈

even after the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, he still showed no sign of restraint and his wrongdoings were of a grave nature and caused public outcry

 

妈妈装的后备箱 the trunk your mom packed

 

"The trunk your mom packed" was a popular topic on social media in China on Wednesday as the week-long Chinese New Year holiday drew to a close, reports Beijing Youth Daily.

据《北京青年报》报道,为期一周的春节假期结束,“妈妈给装的后备箱”成为国内社交媒体上的热门话题。

 

从多位网友晒的照片可以看出,基本都是家乡的食品和土特产(local products),香肠(sausages)、鸡蛋(eggs)、小米(millet)、水果(fruits)、大白菜(Chinese cabbages),五花八门,共同点是不管轿车还是SUV,整个后备箱基本都被塞得满满的。

 

我们发现英文媒体在表达“妈妈给装的后备箱”时使用了三种表达:trunks your mom packed trunks crammed with foodtrunks stuffed with food。这里的三个词packcram以及stuff不仅有...装进的意思,更加强调的是装满、塞满。从网友晒出的照片,我们也能看出来,后备箱里的确是塞得满满当当,真是一点空间都不留。

 

我们再来分别看三个例句:

 

Seventy thousand people will pack the stadium.

将有7万人挤满整个体育场。

 

It's difficult to cram everything into a tight schedule.

日程紧,很难把所有事情都安排进去。

 

He grabbed my purse, opened it and stuffed it full, then gave it back to me...

他抢过我的钱包,打开并塞满钱,然后还给了我。

 

冬奥“首金”first gold medal

 

Wu Dajing won China's first gold medal at the Pyeongchang 2018 Olympic Winter Games by breaking world record twice in men's 500 meters short track speed skating on Thursday.

22日,武大靖两次打破短道速滑男子500米的世界纪录,为我国赢得平昌2018冬奥会上的首块金牌。

 

20日,在短道速滑男子500米预赛(men's 500 meters short track speed skating preliminary contest)中,武大靖以40264的成绩打破奥运纪录(break Olympic Games record),成功晋级;22日晚,武大靖以39800的成绩打破了尘封6年的世界纪录(world record),进入半决赛(semifinal);仅仅一个小时后,武大靖就以39584的成绩打破了自己刚创下的世界纪录摘金,为中国代表队夺得了本届冬奥会的首枚金牌(grab the first gold medal at this Olympic Winter Games),实现中国男子冰上竞速项目冬奥会金牌零的突破。

 

赛后接受采访时,武大靖难掩激动之情。他说:"这块金牌是我们团队集体努力的结果,我们相互鼓励和支持,今天已经做到很好。我想把这枚金牌分享给支持和帮助我们的人。其实如果这枚金牌能掰开的话,我想分给我们团队每个人一块(if the gold can be shared, I hope to share it with all of my teammates from Chinese team)"

 

反向春运 reverse Spring Rush

 

The reverse Spring Rush has not only eased the burden on the railways during the Spring Festival holiday, but also encouraged more people to visit scenic spots in the big cities during the holiday.

反向春运不仅减轻了铁路部门在春节假期期间的负担,也鼓励更多人在假日期间游览大城市中的旅游景点。

 

如今当春运拉开帷幕,面对瞬间"秒光"的火车票和令人咂舌的飞机票时,一些在外打拼的年轻人,不再执着于抢购回家的火车票,而是将老家的父母接到身边来过年(transport their parents in the hometown to come to them for the holiday),于是,从老家到孩子所在地过团圆年的"反向春运(reverse Spring Rush)"由此诞生。

 

中国青年报日前对1975名离家常年在外的受访者进行的调查显示,65%的受访者认为接父母"反向过年"的现象变多了。61.2%的受访者认为父母在来到年轻一代人城里家中时,会有机会饱览不同文化和景色(parents can have an opportunity to feast their eyes on different cultures and landscapes while paying a visit to the urban homes of the younger generation),体验更精彩的生活。常住北上广深等一线城市的受访者希望父母"反向过年"的意愿最高,达51.4%。与此同时,52.3%的受访者认为,父母的到来能使他们从长途往返的行程中解放出来(free them from long distance commuting)24.9%的人指出,这种方式还可以避免夫妻双方为决定和哪方家人过年(decide with which side of the family the holiday should be spent)而争吵。

 

阖家团圆永远是春节的主题(family reunions are the permanent theme of Spring Festival),反向春运是平衡工作和家庭,传统与现代的一种方式(the reverse Spring Rush is a way to balance work and family, the traditional and the modern)。越来越多的人认为一家人在一起最重要,把父母接到自己身边过年同样可以家庭团圆,共度春节。

 

学校恐惧症 school phobia

 

After the end of a semester and before the next, there are a good number of children with “school refusal disorder,” Dr Zhang Yiwen of Shanghai Children’s Medical Center told The Paper.

上海儿童医学中心的章依文医师对澎湃新闻表示,在上一个学期结束、下一个学期开始之前,有很多孩子都有“拒绝上学症”。

 

“学校恐惧症”(school phobia),也称为拒绝上学症school refusal disorder),指一些儿童和青少年对学校产生恐惧和厌恶心理,不愿回到学校,表现出来的症状有:头疼(headache)、恶心(nausea)、胃疼(stomachache)等。

 

儿童(children)和青少年(teenagers)是开学恐惧症的多发人群。据统计,13.8%的儿童情绪障碍(mental disorder)为学校恐惧症。国内有研究发现,学校恐惧症中女孩比男孩略多见,男女比为3:4

 

学校恐惧症多发于几个年龄段。5-7岁为第一高峰期。这一阶段可能与分离焦虑(separation anxiety)相关;11-12岁为第二高峰期,可能与学习压力(school pressure)逐渐加重,难以适应环境,以及与老师、同学间的人际冲突(interpersonal conflicts)有关;14-15岁为第三个高峰期,这可能与学生进入青春期身心发展不平衡(unbalanced physical and mental development)、自我意识冲突等因素有关。

 

另外,毕业班的学生面临升学的关键学期,沉重的学习任务以及自身和家长的过高期望(overexpectation)、渴望成功但又担心失败的心理(the mentality of longing for success while worrying about failure)都让孩子们深感压力巨大。

 

校外培训机构 after-school training institutions

 

China will establish a blacklist of after-school training institutions that have safety hazards, lack permits or have engaged in misconduct, the Ministry of Education said.

教育部表示要对快速发展的校外培训行业进行治理,将对有安全隐患、无资质和不良行为的校外培训机构建立黑名单。

 

中国教育学会发布的《中国辅导教育行业及辅导机构教师现状调查报告》显示,2016年我国现有中小学生1.8亿,中小学课外辅导学生超过1.37亿人次(more than 137 million primary and secondary school students attended after-school training institutions),市场规模(market value)超过8000亿元。校外培训机构竞赛成绩成为升学敲门砖,学校老师引导学生参加校外培训的现象屡见不鲜。

 

此次专项治理行动聚焦六类不规范行为,可以概括为3个方面:

 

一是治理无资质和有安全隐患的培训机构(institutions that lack permits and have safety hazards),把确保学生安全放在首要位置。

 

二是治理数学语文等学科类超纲教(training activities beyond the teaching syllabus)超前学等应试培训行为,把减轻学生校外负担(reduce the burden on primary and secondary school students)放在最突出位置。

 

The after-school institutions should submit their course curricula, enrollment targets and class hours to local education authorities for registration.

校外培训机构开展学科类培训内容、招生对象、上课时间等要向所在地教育行政部门进行登记备案。

 

They are not allowed to organize graded examinations or conduct competitions for primary and secondary school students, and the training results from these institutions cannot be used as criteria for future enrollment in primary and middle schools.

严禁校外培训机构组织中小学生等级考试及竞赛,校外培训机构培训结果不得与中小学校招生入学挂钩。

 

三是治理学校和教师中存在的不良教育教学行为(misconduct in teaching),把强化学校和教师管理提到更重要位置。

 

Teachers who lure or coerce students to attend extra training will be dealt with seriously or even stripped of their teaching credentials.

教师诱导或逼迫学生参加校外培训机构培训等行为,一经查实,一律依法严肃处理,直至取消教师资格。

 

卢敏微博

红海行动 Operation Red Sea ​​​​

监察法草案 a draft law on supervision ​​​​

宪法修正案 a draft revision to the Constitution ​​​​

人才评价 talent evaluation ​​​​

服务发展 development-oriented ​​​​

党管人才 Party leadership over talents ​​​​

唯学历、唯资历、唯论文 preferring diplomas, seniority and academic papers ​​​​

 

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