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Bluce学英语外刊精读笔记 超级详细:1812年,马萨诸塞州州长创造出了一个选区

2017-12-13 21:45| 发布者: admin| 查看: 290| 评论: 0

摘要: 1812年,马萨诸塞州州长创造出了一个选区The U.S. Supreme Court heard arguments last week in a case that could reshape American politics: whether extreme political gerrymandering violates the Constitution ...
1812年,马萨诸塞州州长创造出了一个选区

The U.S. Supreme Court heard arguments last week in a case that could reshape American politics: whether extreme political gerrymandering violates the Constitution.
上周,美国最高法院对于一桩可能重塑美国政治的案子举行了聆讯:极端的操控选区划分是否违宪。
笔记
1.The U.S. Supreme Court heard arguments last week in a case that could reshape American politics
The U.S. Supreme Court (主语)heard (谓语)arguments(宾语) last week(时间状语) in a case(状语) that could reshape American politics(定语从句,修饰case)
2 .whether(引导名词从句) extreme political gerrymandering(主语) violates(谓语) the Constitution(宾语).

【gerrymandering】
柯林斯词典
N-UNCOUNT (为使某一党获得优势)不公正的改划选区Gerrymandering is the act of altering political boundaries in order to give an unfair advantage to one political party or group of people.
With the help of skilful gerrymandering, the Party has never lost an election since.
这个政党通过巧妙地改划选区而使此后的选举无往不胜。
【聆讯】:聆讯是法律词汇,是指案件在公开审讯前,法庭进行的各项中途聆听与讼各方的陈述。聆讯一般都在内庭形式进行,与案无关人士不得列席。

The practice of redrawing voting districts to gain political advantage is named after Elbridge Gerry, who as governor of Massachusetts signed a bill in 1812 creating a long, thin district designed to undermine Federalist candidates. An illustrator at a Boston dinner party is said to have drawn a picture of the district that looked like a salamander, and a political term was born.
为了获得政治优势而重新划分投票地区的行为,是以埃尔布里奇·格里(Elbridge Gerry)这个名字命名,他曾是马萨诸塞州的州长,于1812年签署了一项法案,划出一个意在破坏拥护联邦制候选人的狭长选区。在波士顿的一个晚餐派对上,一名插画家据说画了一幅这个看上去像是火蜥蜴的选区图,一个政治术语就这么诞生了。
笔记
1.The practice of redrawing voting districts to gain political advantage(主语) is (系动词)named after Elbridge Gerry, who as governor of Massachusetts signed a bill in 1812 creating a long, thin district designed to undermine Federalist candidates. 
 to gain political advantage 是目的状语
【Elbridge Gerry】埃尔布里奇·托马斯·格里(Elbridge Thomas Gerry,1744年7月17日-1814年11月23日),美国外交家、政治家,美国民主-共和党成员,曾任马萨诸塞州州长(1810年-1812年)和美国副总统(1813年-1814年)
【creating】:现在分词做结果状语,是signed a bill 的结果。
【designed】:过去分词做后置定语,意思是旨在...
【undermine】:柯林斯词典
1
VERB (常指逐渐或反复)削弱,损害(情感、体制等) If you undermine something such as a feeling or a system, you make it less strong or less secure than it was before, often by a gradual process or by repeated efforts.
Offering advice on each and every problem will undermine her feeling of being adult...
对每个问题都给出建议会令她觉得自己不像个成年人。

2
VERB (常指间接地)削弱,损害,动摇(某人的地位或权威)
 If you undermine someone or undermine their position or authority, you make their authority or position less secure, often by indirect methods.
She undermined him and destroyed his confidence in his own talent...
她暗中打击他,让他对自己的才华信心全无。
3
VERB 破坏,损害(某人的努力或成功的机会) If you undermine someone's efforts or undermine their chances of achieving something, you behave in a way that makes them less likely to succeed.
The continued fighting threatens to undermine efforts to negotiate an agreement.
持续的战斗会破坏希望通过谈判来达成协议的努力。
【be said to】:据说
She is said to be stepping out withal actor Matt Dillon. 
据说她和演员马特·狄龙一起公开露面了。

Critics say the drawing of districts should be assigned to an independent or bipartisan commission, which some states and Australia, Britain, Canada and most of Europe have already done. (One exception is France, where the constitutionality of a 2010 redistricting was contested by lawmakers.)
批评人士说,划分选区的权力可被指定给独立的或两党委员会,一些州和澳大利亚、英国、加拿大及欧洲大部分地区已经这样做了(法国是个例外,该国2010年重新划分选区的合宪性受到了议员的质疑)。
笔记
【which】which引导定语从语,指代前面的一整句话。
【be assigned to】:被分配给,归属于,被指派
【bipartisan】英 [ˌbaɪpɑ:tɪˈzæn]  美 [ˌbaɪˈpɑ:rtɪzn]  
adj.两党的;代表两党的;获得两党支持的
【redistricting】
英 ['ri:'dɪstrɪktɪŋ]  美 ['ri:'dɪstrɪktɪŋ]  
n.<美>重划学区
v.重新区分,更改选举区( redistrict的现在分词 )
A bill introduced in Congress this summer would create such a commission and would allow voters to rank lists of House candidates in order of preference instead of voting for only one.
今年夏天引入国会的一项法案将创建这样的一个委员会,并允许选民根据偏好为国会候选人排序,列出名单,而不是仅为一人投票。
笔记
A bill (主语)introduced in Congress this summer (后置定语)would create (谓语)such a commission (宾语)and would allow (谓语)voters(宾语) to rank lists of House candidates in order of preference instead of voting for only one.
? To rank引导目的状语,in order of 引导方式状语
【rank】:
n.军衔;阶层,等级;次序,顺序;行列
vt.& vi.排列,使成横排;把…分类
vt.排列;超过,高于;把…分等级
vi.位于;使成横排;抱怨;吹毛求疵,揭疮疤
adj.讨厌的;极端的;繁茂的;恶臭的
【in order of】按…顺序
The texts should be graded in order of difficulty.
课文要按难易程度编排。
One obstacle in the fight against gerrymandering is finding a way to measure it. The Supreme Court’s ruling in the Wisconsin case could invalidate maps in up to 20 other states, as well as expose at least a dozen House districts to court challenges.
反对重新划分选区的一个障碍在于找到衡量方式。最高法院在威斯康星案中的裁决可能会让多达20个其他州的选举地图失效,同时还使得至少12个国会选区面临法庭挑战。
笔记
One obstacle in the fight against gerrymandering(后置定语) (主语)is (系动词)finding(表语) a way to measure it(目的状语). The Supreme Court’s ruling in the Wisconsin case(后置定语)(主语) could invalidate(谓语) maps(宾语) in up to 20 other states, as well as expose (谓语)at least a dozen House districts to court challenges.
【obstacle】
柯林斯词典
1 N-COUNT 障碍物 An obstacle is an object that makes it difficult for you to go where you want to go, because it is in your way.
Most competition cars will only roll over if they hit an obstacle...
大多数赛车只有在撞上障碍物时才会翻车。
2 N-COUNT 障碍;困难;阻碍 You can refer to anything that makes it difficult for you to do something as an obstacle .
Overcrowding remains a large obstacle to improving conditions...
过分拥挤仍然是改善环境的一大障碍。
【invalidate】
柯林斯词典
1 VERB 驳倒;证明…站不住脚 To invalidate something such as an argument, conclusion, or result means to prove that it is wrong or cause it to be wrong.
Any form of physical activity will invalidate the results...
任何形式的物理活动都会证明这些结果是错误的。
2 VERB 使无效;使作废 If something invalidates something such as a law, contract, or election, it causes it to be considered illegal.
An official decree invalidated the vote in the capital...
一份官方法令宣布在首都举行的投票无效。




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