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Bluce学英语精读笔记 超级详细 理查德•塞勒获2017年诺贝尔经济学奖

2017-12-12 20:37| 发布者: admin| 查看: 643| 评论: 0

摘要: Richard Thaler wins Nobel Prize in Economics理查德•塞勒获2017年诺贝尔经济学奖Richard Thaler, the man behind “nudge” economics, has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his wor ...

Richard Thaler wins Nobel Prize in Economics

理查德•塞勒获2017年诺贝尔经济学奖

 

Richard Thaler, the man behind “nudge” economics, has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his work on incorporating insights from psychology into economic theory and policymaking.

译文

“轻推”经济学背后的人物理查德•塞勒(Richard Thaler)被授予2017年诺贝尔经济学奖(Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences),因为他将心理学的洞察力融入经济理论和政策制定。

笔记

Nudge:

【释义】(NOUN)a slight push, usually with the elbow(肘部的)轻推,碰

① (VERB) (通常指用肘)轻推,轻碰(以引起注意) If you nudge someone, you push them gently, usually with your elbow, in order to draw their attention to something.

● I nudged Stan and pointed again.

我轻轻推了推斯坦,又指了一下。

● 'Stop it,' he said, and nudged the boy lightly with his knee.  

“别这么干了,”他用膝盖轻轻碰了碰那个男孩说道。

② (VERB) 轻轻地推动(或推向) If you nudge someone or something into a place or position, you gently push them there.

● Edna Swinson nudged him into the sitting room.

埃德娜·斯温森把他推进了起居室。

● The civil servant nudged him forward.  

那个文职人员向前推了他一把。

③ (VERB) 劝说;鼓动 If you nudge someone into doing something, you gently persuade them to do it.

● Bit by bit Bob had nudged Fritz into selling his controlling interest...  

鲍勃一步一步劝说弗里茨卖掉了他的控股权益。

●Foreigners must use their power to nudge the country towards greater tolerance.

外国人必须动用他们的力量促使这个国家变得更加宽容。

④ (VERB) 几乎达到;接近 If someone or something is nudging a particular amount, level, or state, they have almost reached it.

● a little-known stage play writer and actress who was nudging 40 and going nowhere.

一个年近四旬、一事无成、寂寂无闻的舞台剧作者兼演员

● The temperature when we were there was nudging 80 degree F.  

我们在的时候,那里温度接近80华氏度。

⑤ (PHRASE) 性关系;(尤指)性丑闻 If you refer to a nudge and a wink or to nudge-nudge wink-wink, you mean that someone is referring to sex, especially immoral sex, in an indirect way.

● The article then listed a series of nudge-nudge, wink-wink rumors that have appeared in newspapers over the last two years.  

文章接下来列举了过去两年间报纸上出现过的一连串性丑闻传言。

 

【同义词】"轻推;引起注意"释义下的同义词

prod  shove  push  poke  jab  prompt 

【相关词组】① nudge Up 向上微调

② nudge parity轻推分隔

③ nudge large微增宽度

④ prices nudging价格攀升

 

Policymaking: policymaking body决策机构

●the national commission , China's main economic policymaking body , said retail fuel prices would move relatively freely while global crude prices remained below $ 80 a barrel.中国主要经济决策机构——国家发改委表示,当国际原油价格低于每桶80美元时,油品零售价格变动将相对自由。

 

The award, which is officially known as the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in memory of Alfred Nobel, was awarded to Prof Thaler for his “contribution to behavioural economics”, the prize committee said.

译文

诺贝尔评奖委员会表示,把今年的奖项——正式名称是“纪念阿尔弗雷德•诺贝尔瑞典银行经济学奖”(Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel)——授予塞勒教授是为了表彰他“对行为经济学作出的贡献”。

笔记

is officially known as 正式名称为

●During the Soviet era and its immediate aftermath, the region was officially known as "Middle Asia and Kazakhstan".在苏联时代和紧随其后的一段时期,该地区的官方名称为“中亚和哈萨克斯坦”。

behavioural economics

背景知识

行为经济学(behavioural economics)是作为实用的经济学,它将行为分析理论与经济运行规律、心理学与经济科学有机结合起来,以发现现今经济学模型中的错误或遗漏,进而修正主流经济学关于人的理性、自利、完全信息、效用最大化及偏好一致基本假设的不足。

  狭义而言,行为经济学是心理学与经济分析相结合的产物。广义而言,行为经济学把五类要素引入经济分析框架:(1)“认知不协调-C-D gap”;(2)“身份-社会地位”;(3)“人格-情绪定势”;(4)“个性-偏好演化”;(5)情境理性与局部知识。

  传统的西方经济学建立在“理性人”假设的基础上。“经纪人既会计算、有创造性并能追求最大利益的人是进行一切经济分析的基础”(卡尔·布鲁内),传统西方经济学由此展开其对于微观经济主体的理性规律的研究,可见理性人假设是传统西方经济学理论的基石。

  而上个世纪80年代以后,由于传统经济学说在一些理论推演过程中始终陷入“瓶颈”以及在解释及指导现实经济生活时表现得欲振乏力,以里查德·萨勒(Richard H.Thaler)为首的一批经济学家开始对作为传统理论对理论的立论根本的“理性人”假设提出置疑。他们尝试将心理学、社会学等学科的研究方法和成果引入到经济学研究中来,提出了将非理性的经济主体作为微观研究的对象,从而开创了对微观经济主体非理性规律进行研究的先河,行为经济学由此诞生。随后大批学者对这一崭新的领域表现出极大的热情与信心并积极投身于其研究中。一般认为行为经济学正式创立于1994年,已故著名心理学家阿莫斯·特维尔斯基(Amos Tversky),经济学家丹尼尔·卡尼曼(Daniel Kahneman),里查德·萨勒(Richard H.Thaler),马修·拉宾(Matthew Rabin) ,美籍华人奚恺元教授等是这一学科的开创性代表。以行为经济学家丹尼尔·卡尼曼(Daniel Kahneman) 和维农·史密斯(V. Smith)因在行为经济理论和实验经济学方面的杰出研究而获得2002 年度诺贝尔经济学奖为标志,行为经济学有力地展现了其存在价值、学术地位以及广阔的研究前景。

 

 

The US economist co-wrote the global bestseller Nudge, which explores issues such as how people can be given incentives to make more rational decisions.

译文

这名美国经济学家与人合著了全球畅销书《轻推》(Nudge),其中探讨的课题包括如何给予人们激励才能让他们作出更为理性的决策。

笔记

which在这里做后置的非限制性定语从句中代替上文出现的事物或者情况

 

 

 

背景知识

Nudge:

作者:Richard H. Thaler / Cass R. Sunstein 

Richard H. Thaler:这本书写的时候有两个目的,第一个目的是所谓的行为经济学的一些技术和方法,来影响这个公共政策的制定。第二个目标是想制造一种新的所谓的思考模式,这种思考模式无论左翼政党还是右翼政党都可以共同使用的。这个行为经济学的一个原则就是要在经济学当中引用心理学的一些相关方法来分析人的行为。在书中将人分为两类,一类是所谓经济学上的“经济人”,另外一个是我们所谓的普通人,也就是社会人。所谓的经济人是这个经济学家他们想象中创造出来的一个非常聪明的人,他在现实生活中是不存在的。经济人是非常非常聪明的,他们可以仔细的计算出各种投资比例之间的不同,也可以计算出退休之后储存多少钱才够用。但是普通人没有这么聪明,在这类计算当中会碰到很大的问题。另外一点不同,我们普通人缺乏自控能力,而经济人就不会,他们总是作出正确的事情,他们永远不会吃太多东西,不会喝太多的酒,也不会过度的支出,而这些错误都是我们普通人在生活中一定会犯的错误。

 

    所以在书中提出了所谓的“自由主义的温和专制主义”这种方法。尽管自由主义和专制主义听起来是相互矛盾的,但是在它们的理论当中不是的。这个自由主义就是指我们要保留人们所谓的选择的自由权。“温和的专制主义”是指他们要影响人们做决定的过程,以改善人们最终的决策。利用书中的“选择体系”这一概念,将这两个看似相互矛盾的概念完整的结合在一起。

 

He is currently professor of behavioural science and economics at the University of Chicago.

译文

他目前是芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)行为科学与经济学教授。

扩展

理查德·H·泰勒,芝加哥大学商学院教授,行为科学与经济学教授,行为决策研究中心主任,美国国民经济研究局(NBER)主管行为经济学的研究工作。研究主要集中于心理学、经济学等交叉学科,被认为是“现代行为经济学和行为金融学领域的先锋经济学家”。

 

Prof Thaler is the 79th recipient of the Nobel in economics, which was announced by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm on Monday morning. He will receive a prize of SKr9m ($1.1m).

译文

瑞典皇家科学院(Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences)周一在斯德哥尔摩宣布的这一决定,使塞勒教授成为第79位诺贝尔经济学奖获得者。他将获得900万瑞典克朗(合110万美元)的奖金。

笔记

Recipient

【释义】(N-COUNT) 接受者;领受人 The recipient of something is the person who receives it.

recipient of 接受者 recipients of Nobel Prize诺贝尔奖金获得者

●In addition to a Nobel laureate, Becker a recipient of the 2007 Presidential Medal of Freedom.  

2007年, 贝克作为诺奖获得者接受了总统自由勋章.

●Last year, China was the largest recipient of FDI among developing countries with USD 63 bn.  

去年, 中国是吸收外商直接投资最多的发展中国家,高达630亿美元.

【词根】ceive=take/hold/seize,表示"拿,抓,握住"

adj.conceivable可想象的conceive[v.想象;构想;怀孕]+able可以……的→adj.可想象的

recipient接受的,感受性强的

receive[v.接受;收到]  eive变体为cip+ent……的;人或物等→recipient接受的;接受者

n. conceit自豪;自大 con共同+ceit=ceive拿,抓,握住→[自以为]全部抓到→自大

recipient接受者,感受者,容器

receive[v.接受;收到] eive变体为 cip+ent……的;人或物等→recipient接受的;接受者

v. conceive想象;构想;怀孕 con共同+ceive抓→大家一起抓[思想]→构想

deceive欺骗 de坏+ceive拿→拿坏的东西→欺骗

perceive知觉;发觉 per全部+ceive抓→全部抓住→发觉

receive接受;收到 re回+ceive取→收到[回信]

 

Economists have traditionally assumed that individuals behave rationally, making decisions on the basis of all the information readily available to them. But Prof Thaler’s work has incorporated insights from psychology to help explain why people behave in ways that are not fully rational — for example, struggling to save for retirement and placing a higher value on items or money they already have than on those they might buy or win.

译文

传统上,经济学家们假设个人的行为是理性的,根据自己可以轻易获得的所有信息做出决策。但塞勒教授的研究融入了来自心理学的洞见,以帮助解释为什么人们的行为方式不完全理性,例如难以为退休后的人生阶段储蓄,以及认为自己已经拥有的物品或金钱(而不是自己可能购买或赢得的东西)具有更高价值。

笔记

readily available唾手可得;现成;容易取得

●All ingredients are readily available from your local store.  

所有的原料都可以方便地从你当地的商店买到。

【相关词组】

readily available fertilizer速效肥料

not readily available不易得到的

nick is not... ... not quite available 缺货 not readily available 不易得到的

readily availability速效性

not fully未完全;不能完全

●Therefore, ancient Chinese science and religion is not fully developed。

故而中国古代的科学与宗教也就得不到充分的发展。

【写作词组积累】struggling to艰难的

                items or money物品或金钱

【句子分析】a higher value on items or money they already have than on those(those/that 指代的就是 items or money,表达在不同位置的两个相同物品的比较,即they already have与they might buy or win的比较)they might buy or win.

 

 

 

 

After the prize was announced, Prof Thaler, who is a keen golfer, said he would try to spend the money “as irrationally as possible”.

译文

在这一奖项宣布后,爱打高尔夫的塞勒教授表示,他将 “尽量非理性地”花掉这笔奖金。

笔记

irrationally【释义】not based on, or not using, clear logical thought 不合逻辑的;没有道理的

【同义词】unreasonable

●an irrational fear

无端的恐惧

●You're being irrational.

你不可理喻。

【反义词】rational

【派生词】irrationality |ɪˌræʃəˈnæləti|  noun [不可数名词, 可数名词, 常用单数形式]  

Irrationally |ɪˈræʃnəli| adv.

●to behave irrationally

表现得没有理性

 

The insights from his work were summarised in Nudge, which was co-authored with Cass Sunstein, a professor at Harvard. Prof Sunstein quipped on Twitter that the decision to award the prize to Prof Thaler was “an unboundedly rational choice for the Nobel”.

译文

他与哈佛大学(Harvard)教授凯斯•桑斯坦(Cass Sunstein)合著的《轻推》总结了来自他的研究工作的深刻见解。桑斯坦教授在Twitter上表示,把经济学奖授予塞勒教授是“诺贝尔奖作出的无限理性的选择”。

笔记

quipped on 打趣 quipped on Twitter 在推特上打趣

【写作积累】an unboundedly rational choice for对…无限理性的选择

 

The prize committee said Prof Thaler’s work had inspired many other researchers and transformed the field of behavioural economics, which his work spawned, from being “a fringe and controversial” field to a “mainstream area”.

译文

评奖委员会表示,塞勒教授的工作启发了其他许多研究人员,并且彻底转变了他的研究所催生的行为经济学领域,使其从“一个边缘和有争议的”领域变成一个“主流领域”。

笔记

spawn【释义】[单独使用的动词, 动词 + 名词短语] (of fish, frogs , etc. 鱼、蛙等) to lay eggs 产卵

●Some fish, like salmon , may be prevented from swimming upstream to spawn.  

一些鱼类, 例如大马哈鱼, 可能因此无法溯流产卵

[动词+名词短语](often disapproving)to cause sth to develop or be produced引发;引起;导致;造成

●The band's album spawned a string of hit singles.

这支乐队的专辑繁衍出一连串走红的单曲唱片。

【变形】过去分词: spawned 复数: spawns 过去式: spawned 现在分词: spawning

【写作积累】a fringe and controversial field一个边缘和有争议的领域

          mainstream area主流领域

 

Prof Thaler’s conclusions have been influential in shaping economic policies in recent years. He served as an adviser to President Barack Obama and to the team that advised the UK government on incorporating ideas from behavioural economics into policy design. Prof Thaler has also advised the Swedish government on improving the design of its pensions system.

译文

塞勒教授得出的结论近年影响了经济政策的形成。他曾担任巴拉克•奥巴马(Barack Obama)总统的顾问,也曾向英国政府的顾问团队提供咨询,将行为经济学的理念纳入政策设计。塞勒教授还曾就改进养老金制度的设计向瑞典政府提供建议。

笔记

served as出任;充当;起作用

● He served as an arbitrator in a series of commercial disputes in India.  

他担任过印度一系列商业纠纷的仲裁者。

● She ushered me into the front room, which served as her office.  

她把我领进了她用作办公室的前厅。

● The article served as a useful starting point for our discussion.  

这篇文章成了我们展开讨论的良好起点。

incorporating ideas 纳入;吸收思想

incorporate new ideas吸收新的想法

●incorporate new ideas into a plan .在方案中吸收新的想法.

advise on就(某事或做某事)向(某人)提出建议(忠告)

●Dietary experts can advise on the ins and outs of dieting.  

饮食专家可以对日常饮食的方方面面提出建议。

pensions system 养老金制度

●the state and reform of the pension system in canada.

加拿大养老金制度的状况与改革。

One of Prof Thaler’s best-known pieces of work highlighted the phenomenon of “mental accounting”, that is, people spend money differently if it is labelled for one specific purpose rather than another.

译文

塞勒教授最知名的研究成果之一是指出了“心理会计”现象,也就是说,如果一笔钱被标记为某个特定目的,人们会以不同的方式花掉它。

笔记

Phenomenon【释义】

(N-COUNT) 现象A phenomenon is something that is observed to happen or exist.

● scientific explanations of natural phenomena自然现象的科学解释

【变形】复数: phenomena

【同义词】① "事件,事实,现象"释义下的同义词

incident  circumstance  fact  event  occurrence  particular  episode 

② "奇迹,稀有现象"释义下的同义词

spectacle  marvel  rarity  nonesuch  happening  miracle  wonderment  sight  million  prodigy 

【同义词辨析】

●marvel, miracle, wonder, phenomenon 这些名词均含"奇迹"之意。

marvel 侧重异乎寻常,奇怪,从而使人好奇。

miracle 一般指被认为是人力所办不到的奇异之事。

wonder 通常指使人惊奇的事迹、人物或景观,主要指人创造的奇迹。

phenomenon 指罕见的现象或奇人、奇事。

 

Labelled 【释义】 piece of paper, etc. that is attached to sth and that gives information about it 标签;签条;标记

【同义词】tag, ticket

(disapproving) a word or phrase that is used to describe sb/sth in a way that seems too general, unfair or not correct(不恰当的)称谓,绰号,叫法

●I hated the label ‘housewife ’.

我不喜欢“家庭主妇”这个称谓。

●a company that produces and sells records, CDs, etc.唱片公司

The implication of this insight is that policymakers can nudge people towards spending money on specific items by providing them with money labelled for a specific purpose, even if there is no restriction in practice on how the money is spent. In the UK, for example, research has shown that pensioners spent more on heating their homes when they were given a sum of money described as a “winter fuel payment”, even though they were free to spend it however they wished.

译文

这种观点意味着,政策制定者可以通过发放贴上特定目的标签的补贴,来劝说人们把钱花在特定项目上,即使实际上对于人们如何花钱并无限制。例如,英国的研究表明,养老金领取者在获得一笔被称为“冬季燃料支出”的款项后,会更加舍得加大居所供暖支出,即便他们可以随心所欲地自由支配这笔钱。

笔记

【写作积累】The implication of this insight is that这种观点意味着

no restriction in没有限制

a sum of 一笔

labelled for 标签为

research has shown that 研究表明

 

even though(引导让步状语从句“尽管,虽然”)they were free to spend it however(用作连词,引导方式状语从句,表示“无论以何种方式”“不管怎样”) they wished.

 

 

 

 

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